During pregnancy, any expectant mother is looking forward to the birth of her baby, and above all wants him to be healthy. Childbirth is a natural process, and, as a rule, it completes safely for the mother and without complications in the child. But it happens that after childbirth various injuries are found in the baby. Hematoma on the head and other parts of the body of the newborn is considered one of the most frequent injuries.
Causes of injury
Hematoma occurs in approximately 1-2% of children after childbirth. It looks like a bump, most often on the head, and is a hemorrhage or accumulation of fluid under the skin, in muscle tissue, or in the region of the cranial bones, resulting from a rupture of blood vessels.
Most often, a hematoma forms on the head of babies for two reasons. The first is squeezing the head or other parts of the body during birth. The bones of the newborn’s skull are quite flexible and are separated by two fontanelles. This allows the head of the fetus to deform in order to pass through too narrow ancestral canal. The kid pushes his way through his head, and she squeezes. Especially often this happens when a narrow pelvis or large fruit. In most cases, no consequences are observed, but sometimes a hematoma appears after birth.
The second reason is the difference in pressure in the womb and in the outside world. Being born is a stressful situation for the body of a newborn, and the vessels do not always withstand, especially if the drop was too sharp or high. Most often this occurs during cesarean section or vacuum extraction. In the first case, the baby is in the environment too quickly, in the second there is a large pressure drop.
The most likely chance of injury is if:
- the head of the infant is much larger than the width of the birth canal;
- the fetus is premature (even if the birth of the lungs, proceeded quickly and without other complications);
- the child was removed by vacuum extraction;
- Caesarean section was performed.
Difference from a generic tumor
A generic tumor is swelling of muscle tissue after childbirth. In appearance, it is very similar to the hematoma – both look like a bump on the head. However, the lump of the tumor is located on several cranial bones, whereas the hematoma is adjacent to only one bone that has undergone trauma. If, when you press a lump, it moves in one direction, then in the other direction – it is a tumor, and if changing the shape, it “floats”, diverging in wave-like movements, it is a hematoma.
In any case, parents do not need to worry and try to make a diagnosis on their own. The attending physician will examine the baby after delivery and will diagnose the damage. The young mother only needs to listen carefully to his appointments and surround the newborn with care.
Types of hematomas in newborns
After childbirth, cephalohematoma is most often observed, in which fluid accumulates between the cranial bone and periosteal tissue. If the bump is not too large, it usually resolves without any consequences within 1-2 weeks. Often, referring to the hematoma of the newborn, it means kefaloghematoma. If cefaloghematoma is found on the baby’s head after delivery, you shouldn’t demand that the doctor appoint a treatment. In most cases, this is not necessary, education completely disappears by itself, without causing any harm and without affecting the development and well-being of the baby.
Intracerebral hematoma is the entry of blood directly into the brain. With such a pathology, treatment is imperative.
A subdural hematoma is a collection of blood beneath the lining of the brain. Most often occurs in weak children and after heavy childbirth. It is treated with special injections, which are prescribed by a doctor.
The most dangerous epidural hematoma is a rupture of the vessel between the lining of the brain and the skull. Emergency medical intervention is necessary, a delay of even a few minutes can cost the child life.
Observation and treatment of cefalohematoma
If the bump does not disappear 2 weeks after birth, you must show the child to a pediatrician and a neurologist. To clarify the diagnosis, the doctor may prescribe an ultrasound, an x-ray of the head and other examinations.
If cefalohematoma has not resolved itself, a puncture is performed to cure it. With the help of two special needles, the doctor pumps out the fluid from the bumps.
One is required directly for aspiration, the second is to prevent a pressure drop in the cavity that has arisen. Parents do not have to worry, the operation is completely safe, painless and does not cause complications.
Immediately after treatment, the baby’s well-being improves, he becomes more cheerful and active. In hematomas of considerable size after the operation, medication may be prescribed. For children with poor blood clotting, hemostatic drugs are used.
It is highly desirable to provide breastfeeding for the baby during the final recovery period. With mother’s milk, the child will receive everything for proper development, including biologically active substances that are so necessary during this period that strengthen the body and reduce the risk of infections and suppuration.
Are complications possible?
Doctors do not include cefalohetome after birth as a dangerous injury, however, experts believe that a baby with such a disease should be monitored. If you do not start treatment in time, when necessary, the lump may fester and the consequences may be very different. If the damage does not resolve itself, blood should be removed from the hematoma before the formation of pus has begun.
The opinion of the doctor about cephalhematoma, see the video from 17 minutes.
Without treatment, large cefalohematoma may not heal for too long, up to a month. This adversely affects the shape of the child’s head, leading to its curvature. An ossified hematoma may leave an unattractive lump on the head. But the consequences can not be limited to appearance, although this is important, because everyone wants their offspring to be beautiful. Sometimes an unhealed injury leads to a slowdown in the physical and mental development of the child, and in extremely rare cases, to cerebral palsy.