The condition of the urogenital tract shows such parameters as white blood cells (they are white blood cells) and red blood cells in the urine. Accurate diagnosis is important, their presence – this is already considered a deviation – and quantity. Exceeding the permissible rate with rare exceptions indicates the formation and course in the body of pathological processes. The level of red cells in urine can be detected after a general clinical analysis.
What is red blood cells
Before dealing with the possible reasons for the increase in the norm, it is necessary to know what red blood cells are; the definition of this concept is as follows: these are special blood cells that carry oxygen from the lungs and back; to body tissues, muscles and transporting carbon dioxide back. They purify the blood of toxins and give it a familiar red color due to the high protein content of hemoglobin. With the help of red blood cells is the power and respiration of the body.
Externally, the cells look like disks with a central groove, do not have a nucleus. They are elastin and can curl, easily penetrating into the smallest vessels. The place of appearance of red blood cells in the human body is the red bone marrow, located in the spine, ribs, inside the bones of the skull. Each cell goes a long way before it enters the bloodstream: it grows, changes size, shape and composition.
Can there be red blood cells in the urine
Search for red blood cells in urine is necessary for diagnosis. Red blood cells are not detected in the urine under normal conditions, and in children should be completely absent. Blood cells can overcome the natural barrier of the vascular wall in injuries, injuries, inflammation, as evidenced by red blood cells in the urine. Then the cells are visible under a microscope (in the so-called field of view of the device) or with the naked eye. These concepts describe two terms:
- Micro hematurgy. The number of erythrocytes is insignificant, one or two blood cells in the visible region.
- Macrohematurgy. The excess of the norm is significant, the urine acquires a red tint.
Modified red blood cells in the urine
Elevated red blood cells in the urine are the first to indicate abnormalities. How serious the problem is and what the reason for it is can be determined by the appearance of the cells. Official medicine distinguishes two types of red blood cells that can be detected in urine: unchanged and modified. The latter are leached cells that lose hemoglobin, change the structure, shape, are accompanied by the presence of protein. Such erythrocytes in the urine of women and men speak of changes and disorders in the urinary system.
Erythrocytes unchanged in the urine
In the case when the cells are unchanged, their parameters remain the same. They do not lose hemoglobin, structure and their function of the transporter. What are red blood cells in the urine, not deformed? These are fresh cells from the damaged blood vessels of the bladder, the mucous membranes of the ureters, etc. They get into the urine and when opened bleeding in the uterus.
Erythrocytes in urine – normal
After a urine test, red blood cells are detected in small amounts, which is the norm. For natural reasons, they can get during menstruation and intercourse (for men with uncircumcised foreskin), as well as after active exertion, stay in the bath, abuse of spicy food and alcohol. Permissible number of red cells in a healthy person:
- up to one in the field of view of the analytical instrument in men;
- up to three in women.
Erythrocytes in the urine are elevated – causes
If the following has been identified and proven: red blood cells in the urine are elevated, the causes of women and men are different, associated with various disorders of the organs of the reproductive system. These are prostatitis, prostate cancer, cervical erosion and uterine bleeding. But there are common pathologies. Erythrocytes in the urine, what does it mean when a person is not healthy? These are typical symptoms:
- kidney diseases (cancer, pyelonephritis, urolithiasis, etc.);
- postrenal pathologies associated with the bladder and urethra;
- a consequence of somatic causes is intoxication, hemophilia, and a decrease in the level of platelets.
What to do if red blood cells in the urine are elevated?
Only laboratory analysis (micro hematurgy) can show that red blood cells are elevated in the urine. For detailing, analysis of several samples is assigned, which are placed in 3 different containers. After studying under a microscope, the cause of the occurrence will be clear. If the number of blood cells in all tubes is the same, then the blood comes from the kidneys. If erythrocytes are found only in the first container, there is a high probability that there is a disease of the bladder, and if in the third tube it is more likely to be in the urinary system.
Further actions and treatment are assigned based on the result. How can a patient help a doctor? It is necessary to clarify whether there have been any changes in the diet over the past week, if there have been any injuries, overwork, or if any medications have been used. This will help the doctor find out if the increase in the level of the red cells is due to a physiological cause or the development of pathologies. Sometimes after normalization of the daily routine, diet and exclusion of provoking factors, analyzes return to normal. But after 20-30 days you need to do repeated research.
Erythrocytes in the urine in pregnant women
It happens that clinical analysis reveals erythrocytes in the urine during pregnancy, which is not always dangerous and is a violation. The uterus increasing at times and the child in it puts pressure on the kidneys, which are therefore working in a heightened mode. Changes in blood circulation and renal filtration leads to the appearance of blood cells. During pregnancy, the rate of erythrocytes in the urine of women is 2 units. In the average analysis – 3-5 in the field of view, which is not a deviation. If there are more cells, urination is accompanied by pain, burning, fever and other symptoms, there is a pathology.
By analyzing the urine, almost any disease can be identified. Therefore, this laboratory study precedes many diagnostic measures. Erythrocytes in the urine, along with proteins and leukocytes, give doctors a clear picture of the patient’s general condition, the work of his internal organs. Excess cell levels require careful examination and medical intervention.