Erysipelas in children is an infectious skin disease. Children with erysipelas, malozaraznye. It should be noted that girls suffer from erysipelas more often than boys. In more than 55% of cases, people from the age of 40 suffer from erysipelas, but this disease is often found in children. Erysipelas (erysipelas) in most cases is characterized by a fairly clear autumn-summer seasonality. This disease is a very common streptococcal infection that infects soft tissues.
The source of infection is an adult or child who suffers from one of the common forms of streptococcal infection or streptococonias. There is a special selective susceptibility or predisposition to erysipelas. Some children and adults are sick repeatedly, because the immunity that is formed is unstable. Streptococcus usually enters the body of a child or an adult through minor damage to the skin or mucosa. In addition, there are cases of exogenous infection (when using a contaminated instrument, materials for dressing), as well as chronic streptococcal focus of infection (for example, from people suffering from chronic tonsillitis). In this case, a very important role is played by the state of reactivity of the child’s body, which can cause significant fluctuations in susceptibility to various pathogens of infectious diseases and, in particular, to streptococci as well.
The incubation period of erysipelas ranges from several hours to 3 – 5 days. In children with a recurrent course, the edema of development of each next exacerbation is usually preceded by stresses and hypothermia.
Characteristic symptoms of erysipelas in a child
Most often, erysipelas (erysipelas) in children begins quite sharply. During the initial phase of the disease there is a significant development of intoxication. In this case, the symptoms of increased intoxication in most children are ahead of the first local manifestations of the disease for several hours or even for 1 to 2 days. In this case, the child may experience significant headaches, muscle aches, chills, and general malaise. With about a third of the children affected with erysipelas, nausea and vomiting occur. Almost immediately, the child’s body temperature rises to 38 degrees. In places where later on the skin manifestations of the disease appear, children experience heartburn, pain and discomfort.
The disease progresses over a short period, which lasts from several hours to 1 – 2 days, starting from the first symptoms. At this time, the maximum occurrence of intoxication and fever. Immediately after this, typical local manifestations of the disease appear. In most cases, erysipelas occurs on the surface of the lower extremities, more rarely, it appears on the upper extremities and face. Extremely rare erysipelas can occur on the surface of the body. However, it is most often localized in the perineum, breast or external genital organs.
The initial sign of erysipelas is the appearance on the skin of a small pink or red spot, which after a couple of hours already turns into a specific redness, which is characteristic only of this disease. Such reddening looks like spots with clear uneven borders, have the form of tongues (teeth). At the same time, at the site of redness, the skin becomes tense, painful on palpation and hot to the touch. In some cases, the so-called edge roller is visually manifested – the raised edges of the spot at the site of redness. During redness, the skin gradually swells and subsequently the edema spreads beyond the limits of redness. The formation of such bubbles is due to increased sweating of the skin within the inflammatory process. After damage or unauthorized rupture of the bubbles, liquid flows out, after which superficial wounds remain in their place. If the bubbles were not damaged, then brown or yellow spots remain at the place of their formation. In addition, among the residual effects of the disease, there are still several months or weeks, there is skin pigmentation, edema, and a dry, dense brownish crust.
Methods of diagnosing faces
The diagnosis of erysipelas in children is carried out by a general practitioner or infectious disease specialist. When a child has a clinical diagnosis of erysipelas (erysipelas), the acute onset of the disease with fever and other manifestations of intoxication is taken into account, most often ahead of typical local phenomena (in some cases appear simultaneously), the characteristic localization of local inflammatory reactions (lower limbs, face, less often – other areas of the skin), the development of regional lymphadenitis in a child, the absence of pronounced pain at rest.
Children erythema treatment
Treatment of erysipelas (erysipelas) in children always takes into account the appropriate form of the disease, the absence or presence of complications, the significance and nature of the lesion, the consequences and other factors. As a rule, the majority of children diagnosed with the easy course of erysipelas, and the majority of patients who have found a form of moderate severity of this disease, undergo treatment in a polyclinic. The reasons for hospitalization in infectious departments of hospitals are:
- severe disease,
- severe concomitant diseases
- frequent relapses;
- early age.
The main role in the complex treatment of children with erysipelas is played by antimicrobial therapy. In the case of treatment of the child at home with a visit to the clinic, it is advisable to use antibiotics in the form of tablets:
- Olethetrin, erythromycin, spiramycin, doxycycline (course of 7 to 10 days)
- ciprofloxacin, azithromycin (course from 5 to 7 days)
- rifampicin (course from 7 to 10 days).
When a child is intolerant of antibiotics, furazolidone (course of 10 days) and delagil (course of 10 days) are used. Treatment of erysipelas in children under inpatient conditions is often carried out with the use of benzylpenicillin (a course of 7 to 10 days). If a severe form of the disease has been established or complications have arisen (cellulitis, abscess), in addition to the use of benzylpenicillin, gentamicin is also prescribed. In some cases, cephalosporins may also be used.
In the case of pronounced inflammation of the skin, children are also given anti-inflammatory drugs butadiene and chlothazol (a course of 10 to 15 days). In addition, a child that has a mug, is necessarily prescribed therapy with vitamins, which can last up to 4 weeks. If a child has a severe course of erysipelas, she is prescribed detoxification intravenous therapy with the use of reopolyglucin, hemodez, saline and glucose solution. In addition, 5 to 10 ml of prednisone and 5% ascorbic acid solution can be used. Additionally, antipyretic, diuretic and cardiovascular agents may be used. If a child has a diagnosis of erythematous erysipelas, she is prescribed physiotherapy procedures, in particular, ultraviolet irradiation (UV), acting bacteriostatic on bacteria.
In order to prevent erysipelas in children, it is necessary to follow certain rules, namely:
- Avoid abrasions and injuries of the legs;
- timely treat infectious diseases caused by streptococcus;
- timely treatment of primary diseases that can cause the development of erysipelas;
- periodically apply prophylaxis with medicines, using long-acting antibiotics that stop the development of streptococci in the child’s body.
It should be noted that drug prevention exists only for children who are occasionally worried about relapses of erysipelas. Drugs should be taken for a long time, which can sometimes last almost a year. However, only a doctor can prescribe a prophylaxis for erysipelas.