The principles of the educational process (the principles of education) are general background provisions that express the basic requirements for the content, methods, and organization of the educational process. They reflect the specifics of the upbringing process, and in contrast to the general principles of the pedagogical process discussed by us above, these are general provisions that guide teachers in solving educational tasks.
The principle of personification in education requires that an educator:
1) he constantly studied and well knew the individual characteristics of temperament, character traits, attitudes, tastes, habits of his pupils;
2) knew how to diagnose and knew the real level of formation of such important personal qualities as thinking, motives, interests, attitudes, personality orientation, attitude to life, work, value orientations, life plans, etc .;
3) constantly attracted each pupil to the feasible for him and increasingly complicated by the difficulty of educational activities, ensuring the progressive development of the personality;
4) timely identify and eliminate the causes that may hinder the achievement of the goal, and if these reasons could not be identified and eliminated in time, he promptly changed the tactics of upbringing, depending on the new prevailing conditions and circumstances;
5) as much as possible relied on the personal activity of the individual;
6) combined education with self-education of the individual, helped in the choice of goals, methods, forms of self-education;
7) developed independence, initiative, amateur pupils, not so much directed, how many skillfully organized and directed the activities leading to success.
Comprehensive implementation of these requirements eliminates the simplification of the age and individual approaches, aims the educator to take into account not the superficial, but the deep development of the processes, is based on the laws of education and the cause-effect relationships that are manifested in this process. Among the individual characteristics on which the caregiver needs to rely, the features of perception, thinking, memory, speech, character, temperament, and will more often stand out. Although it is rather difficult to thoroughly study these and other features in mass education, the teacher, if he is trying to succeed, is forced to spend additional time, energy, money, collecting important information, without which knowledge of personal qualities cannot be complete and concrete. It is very difficult and not always possible to understand the deep personality characteristics of external acts of behavior. It is necessary that the pupil himself helped the tutor. Make him your friend, ally, employee. This is the shortest and surest way of positive transformations. The fact that hereditary (natural) factors are of great importance in human development has been understood already in ancient times. This position, which is constantly being confirmed in practice, has in time become a fundamental principle, that is, the main, fundamental and guiding position of pedagogy. This principle later became known as the principle of nature conformance. In its most general form, it means relating to man as a part of nature, relying on his natural forces and creating conditions for his development, drawn from nature. Ancient science did not even think that the education of a person could be artificially divorced from its natural bases. Cicero spoke everywhere and everywhere: “If we follow nature as the leader, we will never get lost.” The great Ya. A. Komensky, after several centuries of oblivion, revived the idea of nature-conformity, revealed its importance in education. The exact order of education, and, moreover, one that could not be disturbed by any obstacles should be borrowed from nature. If we intend to seek means against the shortcomings of nature, then we have to look for them not anywhere else, as in nature itself. “It is perfectly true that art (education. – M. R.) is much more than an imitation of nature.” “As soon as this will be accurately implemented, the created art (education. – M. R.) will flow as easily and freely as all natural things flow easily and freely.”
The principle of nature-matching by Ya. A. Komensky was supported and developed by John Locke: “God imposed a certain stamp on the soul of every person, which, like its appearance, may be slightly corrected, but it is hardly possible to completely change it and turn it into the opposite. Therefore, those who deal with children should thoroughly study their natures and abilities with the help of frequent trials (!), Keep track of which way they easily dodge and what suits them, what their natural inclinations are, how they can be improved and what they can be useful for. ” For a long time in pedagogy, the principle of nature compliance has been forgotten. What does the modern pedagogy of primary education achieve by returning to it? First of all, a clear understanding of the capabilities of students. This eliminates the contradiction between the same school curricula, designed for the mythical equality of students, and the far from the same abilities of children to learn certain subjects. Studies have confirmed that the neglect of the principle of nature compliance has caused a crisis of education in many countries. Having found the reason for the weakening of the health of schoolchildren, the deterioration of morality and mental instability, the teachers of these countries were not afraid to admit their mistakes and returned to the tried and tested classical pedagogy.
The principle of cultural conformity is the consideration of the conditions in which a person is located, as well as the culture of a given society, in the process of upbringing and education. Ideas of the need for culture conformity were developed by a German teacher.
Modern education is a product of the Enlightenment, and it grew out of the outstanding discoveries of the first phase of the scientific revolution. However, science by the end of the 20th century. made a sharp leap and radically changed, recognizing the multiplicity of truth, refusing universal pretensions. Science has now turned to moral quest, and the system of school disciplines still finds it difficult to get out of the 19th-century picture cursors. Education is no longer understood as “cultivation”,
The concept of “educated person” was understood as “informed person”, and this does not guarantee that he has the ability to reproduce culture and, all the more, to generate cultural innovations. Having become the bearer of cultural and historical values, a person in the course of his life perceives, reproduces these values and strives for the creation of new cultural realities.
Humanistic education has as its goal the harmonious development of the individual and presupposes a humane character of relations between the participants of the pedagogical process. The term is used to denote such relationships. "humane education". The latter assumes a special concern of society about educational structures. In the humanistic tradition, the development of personality is considered as a process of interrelated changes in rational and emotional spheres, which characterize the level of harmony of its self and sociality. It is the achievement of this harmony that is the strategic direction of humanistic education.
A common goal in the world theory and practice of humanistic education has been and remains the ideal of a person from the depth of ages that is comprehensively and harmoniously developed. This ideal goal gives a static characterization of the personality. Its dynamic characteristic is connected with the concepts of self-development and self-realization. Therefore, it is these processes that determine the specificity of the goal of humanistic education: the creation of conditions for self-development and self-realization of the individual in harmony with himself and society. In such a goal of upbringing, humanistic ideological positions of society in relation to the individual and their future are accumulated. They allow one to understand man as a unique phenomenon of nature, to recognize the priority of his subjectness, the development of which is the goal of life. Thanks to this formulation of the goal of education, it is possible to rethink the influence of a person on his life, his right and responsibility for the disclosure of his abilities and creative potential, to understand the relationship between the internal freedom of personal choice in self-development and self-realization and the targeted influence on society. Consequently, in the modern interpretation of the goal of humanistic education lies the possibility of forming a planetary consciousness and elements of a universal culture.
The essence of differentiation is that in education it is necessary to take into account the age and individual characteristics of students. On the behavior and development of the personality one way or another, its age and individual characteristics affect. For example, in the lower grades, where students are self-aware at the initial stage of development, their personal formation occurs mainly under the direct influence of the teacher. In adolescent classes, where students develop an intensive development of self-consciousness, upbringing is more indirect in nature and its effectiveness largely depends on the extent to which it encourages students to self-educate work. The individual characteristics of the mental, physical, and moral development of students, their reaction to external influences, have a smaller impact on education. One student has a calm, balanced character, sensitive to comments, in relations with teachers and peers shows benevolence and respect. The other, on the contrary, has increased irritability, is sharp in communicating with other people, does not know how to maintain good companionship. All this should be appropriately reflected in education. Students with a balanced character are easier to engage in joint activities, more quickly assert their personal dignity and develop more intensively. Students with increased irritability require greater sensitivity, respect and delicacy on the part of their peers and teachers.
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