Determining early pregnancy is important for a woman. Almost half of the embryos die in the first two weeks from the moment of conception, because the embryo is still so defenseless that many of our usual effects (infection, alcohol or medication, excessive exposure to the sun) become fatal for it.
In the case of abortion, in order not to get complications and preserve the ability to bear children in the future, it is necessary to know the gestational age to determine. what kind of intervention is possible. So popular today non-surgical (medical) abortions are possible within 48 days from the start of the last menstruation. Vacuum aspiration (mini-abortions) is performed for up to 20 days from the time of menstruation. Classic instrumental abortion (curettage of the uterus) is possible during pregnancy for up to 12 weeks. However, the best time for it is 6-7 weeks.
Such signs as change of mood, hypersensitivity, vulnerability may indicate the onset of pregnancy. Often, taste and appetite change. Nausea is possible, especially in the morning. Sometimes pregnant women tend to avoid noisy crowded places, they seek solitude. But on the basis of these signs, it is impossible to reliably diagnose "pregnancy".
Objective diagnostic signs of pregnancy
- . However, menstruation delay can also be of a psychogenic nature: the result of transferred stress (psychological, for example, exams, or physiological — physical overload, abrupt climate change and
On short periods of pregnancy, most of these signs may be absent or be mild.
Determination of early pregnancy
During pregnancy, the hormone human chorionic gonadotropin () in the woman’s body begins to be produced in a woman’s blood at 7–8 days after conception. In the urine, hCG appears a little later and can be determined at home on the first day of a monthly delay (rapid test), and sometimes even 3-5 days earlier than the delay.
Typically, a home pregnancy test is an indicator strip, which is lowered into the morning portion of urine, most saturated with hormones, for 1-2 minutes. By changing the color of the strip or a certain number of colored strips judge the presence of pregnancy.
However, various factors influence the reliability of the test. For example, drinking plenty of water the day before can dilute the concentration of the hormone and test them "will notice". Or the impaired kidney function causes a change in the chemical composition of urine (for example, the presence of protein invisible to the eye), which can also distort the test results. In addition, the test could be incorrectly stored or applied.
In the early stages, if the pregnancy develops, the level of hCG doubles every 48 hours (determined by a blood test), reaching a peak around the sixtieth day of the embryo’s development. If the pregnancy does not develop, the level of hCG remains at the same level or decreases.
HCG exhibits the presence and development of pregnancy, but not its localization (normal intrauterine position of the fetus, or ectopic pregnancy).
Temperature measurement in the rectum
Estimated signs of pregnancy
Presumptive symptoms are associated with the subjective sensations of the woman and changes in the body of the pregnant, not related to the internal genital organs. These diagnostic signs are:
- drooling, nausea, vomiting in the morning, change in appetite, aversion to certain types of food, addiction to spicy and sour dishes, taste distortion (desire to eat lime, chalk, clay, etc.), dyspepsia may appear in women, a feeling of heaviness in the epigastric region, constipation;
- functional changes of the nervous system: mild irritability, exacerbation of smell, hearing, tearfulness, isolation;
- change in metabolism: an increase in the volume of the abdomen associated with the deposition of fat in the subcutaneous layer, pigmentation of the nipples and areola, the white line of the abdomen, the appearance of age spots on the face);
- the appearance of scarring of pregnancy (striae gravidarum).
Nutrition for pregnant women
Nutrition for pregnant women should include all basic foods, adequate amounts of fluids, fiber and calcium. Body weight by the end of pregnancy increases by an average of 10-12 kg. Malnutrition increases the risk of VUZR. With a normal initial weight caloric intake should be at least 2400 kcal / day. The diet should include 60-80 g of protein, a large amount of fiber, as well as milk or dairy products. Fats and carbohydrates should be limited. Obesity before pregnancy (weight over 90 kg) or excessive weight gain during pregnancy increases the risk of developing a large fetus and the risk of birth trauma. In such cases, a caesarean section is often required.
Assigning vitamins and minerals, with the exception of folic acid and iron supplements, is usually not required. The addition of folic acid to the diet (before and during pregnancy) reduces the risk of fetal CNS abnormalities. Iron preparations are prescribed after the 28th week of pregnancy.
Work during pregnancy
Work during pregnancy is quite acceptable. It is important to remember that pregnant women can not lift weights, work in the heat and in conditions of high humidity. In addition, they should avoid exposure to harmful substances and prolonged standing. It is not recommended to work for pregnant women with a history of two or more of preterm birth, istmikotservikalnuyu failure, spontaneous abortion due to uterine malformations and heart failure III-IV functional classes, Marfan syndrome, hemoglobinopathies, diabetes mellitus complicated by retinopathy or nephropathy, bleeding from genital tract in the third trimester of pregnancy, premature rupture of amniotic fluid. In addition, it is not recommended to work for a period of more than 28 weeks with a multiple pregnancy.
Exercise during pregnancy
When uncomplicated pregnancy, exercise is recommended. Most pregnant fit walking, swimming and a special course of aerobics. The intensity of the load plan, depending on the physique and lifestyle of the woman. Athletes can continue training, but should avoid overheating and dehydration. In the third trimester of pregnancy, excessive load on the knee and ankle joints should be avoided.
Smoking during pregnancy
Smoking to pregnant women is contraindicated, as it causes VUZR, premature birth, spontaneous abortion, stillbirth, sudden infant death syndrome, congenital malformations and respiratory disorders in the newborn. It has been proven that smoking a pregnant woman for more than 10 cigarettes per day significantly affects the weight of the newborn. It is important to inform the woman about the consequences of smoking and to mark her consent in the medical record. Since most smokers do not realize the severity of the consequences, their training as well as contacting the respective mutual aid groups plays an important role.
Alcohol during pregnancy
Alcohol is also contraindicated for pregnant women. With regular use of alcohol, fetal alcohol syndrome may develop. Sometimes it is observed even with occasional alcohol use, and there is a direct relationship between the amount of alcohol consumed and the severity of the disease.
Sex life during pregnancy
In the normal course of pregnancy there are no restrictions in sexual life. With complications (bleeding, premature birth, placenta previa, premature discharge of amniotic fluid) sex life is contraindicated. In oral sexual intercourse, a large amount of air in the vagina should be avoided, as air pulmonary embolism may develop.
Fetal movements are periodic and may vary throughout pregnancy. A marked reduction or cessation of perturbations is a sign of intrauterine hypoxia.
Signs of Preterm Birth
Harbingers of preterm labor. According to studies, thanks to the training of pregnant women and medical staff it is possible to increase the level of early diagnosis of preterm labor. The precursors of preterm labor include the following symptoms:
- Chaotic fetal movements lasting more than 30 s and occurring more often 4 times within 1 hour.
- Attacks of cramping pain in the lower abdomen, lasting for more than 30 s and recurring more often 4 times within 1 hour.
- Periodic pulling pain in the abdomen.
- Changes in the nature of discharge or bleeding from the genital tract.
- Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea.
Headache and back pain in pregnant women
For headaches and back pain in pregnant women, paracetamol is prescribed, 325-650 mg orally every 3-4 hours, and for migraines, codeine or similar analgesics. Aspirin is contraindicated.
Nausea and vomiting in pregnant women
In case of nausea and vomiting in pregnant women, fractional feeding in small portions is recommended. A woman is recommended to eat several crackers in the morning on an empty stomach and only after that slowly get out of bed. Spicy and fatty foods should be avoided. With severe vomiting, hospitalization and parenteral nutrition are indicated. It has been established that Hj-blockers with antiemetic effects (promethazine, diphenhydramine, and some others) do not cause fetal malformations. The previously widely used bendectin is now discontinued.
Constipation in pregnant women
For constipation in pregnant women, a diet high in fiber and plenty of drinks, as well as regular exercise, are recommended. It is possible to use softening laxatives – sodium dokuzat or psyllium seed. In extreme cases, if they are ineffective, other laxatives are prescribed.
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Pregnancy as a diagnosis
Pregnancy is a diagnosis, and the diagnosis in translation means “management tactics”. Indeed, pregnancy leaves its imprint on the entire body of a woman as a whole, since at this time there are intense changes in all organs and systems of her body.
In addition, pregnancy is a contraindication for the appointment of certain drugs, which is especially important to consider doctors of other specialties. During pregnancy (signs of pregnancy are especially important in the early stages before the delay, that is, the very beginning of a new life), fluorography or any other X-ray examination that can be given to a woman is contraindicated if it is not known that she is pregnant.
Therefore, the timely detection of the fact of pregnancy is very important, since the correct management of pregnancy from the earliest periods is the key to its successful completion – the birth of a living, viable child. Based on this, knowledge of the early signs of pregnancy is important both for the patient and for doctors of various specialties. That is what will be discussed in our.
The main directions of diagnosis of pregnancy
Often, the diagnosis of pregnancy in the short term presents significant difficulties, since the detectable early signs of pregnancy before the menstruation is delayed are not very specific and can be observed in other conditions and diseases. Diseases of the endocrine glands, neuropsychiatric disorders, stressful situations, taking certain medications can mimic the state of pregnancy, which misleads both the doctor and the patient.
Observed hormonal changes during pregnancy lead to the emergence of new subjective sensations, as well as to certain objective changes that are determined by the doctor. In addition to detecting these signs of pregnancy in the early stages, additional research methods are used, which include conducting ultrasound and determining the level of chorionic gonadotropin in the urine (urinary pregnancy test, which can be qualitative and quantitative) and in the blood. These are laboratory signs of pregnancy that can be detected.
But the establishment of the fact of pregnancy still does not allow to put an end to the diagnostic search. At the next stage, it is important to establish where the fertilized egg is localized (in the uterus or outside of it), and whether the pregnancy develops, that is, to exclude a non-developing pregnancy.
Thus, the diagnostic search includes three areas:
- pregnancy diagnosis;
- determination of the place of implantation of the ovum;
- definition of embryo / fetal heartbeat (embryo is called the ovum before 8 weeks of development).
Methods of screening pregnant women
What early signs of pregnancy exist and how to identify them? This is the main issue that worries many women trying to get pregnant. First, consider how you can determine the signs of pregnancy.
Pregnancy detection is based on an assessment of:
- complaints and subjective feelings of women;
- an objective examination of a woman, which includes an examination of the mammary glands and vaginal examination (using mirrors and a two-handed study);
- results of additional research methods (ultrasound, blood and urine tests).
Let us dwell in more detail on additional methods of research, since the first signs of early pregnancy are difficult to diagnose with the help of a routine clinical study (debriefing, examination, palpation and
Ultrasound examination allows to establish the fact of pregnancy, its localization, as well as the presence of the embryo’s heartbeat, that is, it solves all three main tasks of the diagnostic search. The most reliable and early information can be obtained if the study is carried out using a vaginal sensor. It is important to establish the presence of a heartbeat before the period of 8 weeks of gestation, since by this time the embryo’s heart was laid.
If there are no fetal heart contractions by this date, then the pregnancy most likely has stopped (non-developing pregnancy).
Determination of chorionic gonadotropin in the blood or urine (a sign of pregnancy in the early stages – 1, 2, 3 and 4 weeks) allows you to diagnose the presence of an ovum. However, it does not provide accurate information about the site of its implantation. This can only be indirectly judged – the discrepancy between the level of this hormone (less than a norm) and the expected duration of pregnancy.
The same can be said about the viability of the product of conception. If the content of chorionic gonadotropin corresponds to the gestational age, then the pregnancy develops normally, and if it is less than the norm, then one should think either of a missed pregnancy or an ectopic pregnancy.
Very rarely can there be a significant increase in this hormone, which is regarded as a serious pathology and is indicative of cystic drift or chorionic carcinoma. This is a variation of the so-called trophoblastic disease, which belongs to oncological diseases. A slight increase in chorionic gonadotropin is the earliest sign of twin pregnancy, that is, it does not characterize pathology.
Subjective signs of pregnancy
The subjective signs of pregnancy are the signs of early pregnancy, which are called dubious signs in the medical literature. About these signs tells the woman herself. Their appearance is associated with hormonal changes that occur in the maternal organism in the event that an ovum is fertilized by the sperm cell. For the same reason, objective symptoms appear, which are detected by a physician with a thorough examination of the woman.
They are the second most important diagnostic search and are called probable signs of pregnancy. The most reliable are reliable signs, which are determined only in the second half of pregnancy.
Symptoms of early pregnancy
Some people understand literally from the first days that a pregnancy has come, for whatever sensations. But most girls learn about their pregnancy only in the absence of menstruation. Every girl wants to know about her new pregnancy as soon as possible. Therefore, it will be very interesting to find out what are the symptoms of pregnancy in the early stages, what is not possible in the early stages of pregnancy and how to find out the early term of pregnancy?
Symptoms of early pregnancy or how to determine pregnancy at home
If a girl always listens to her body and knows it well, then it will be quite easy to feel the symptoms of pregnancy in the early stages.
- One of the possible symptoms is a small bleeding, accompanied by mild pain in the lower abdomen. These feelings are similar to menstruation, and the girls believe that they simply begin menstruation, so this symptom remains unnoticed. And these pains and discharges appear due to the attachment of a fertilized egg to the walls of the uterus.
- The chest becomes much more sensitive. Even the lightest touches to it are felt.
- Feeling of tiredness, drowsiness, dizziness may appear.
- If a girl does not have enough nutrients in her body, then a sharp change in appetite can be noticed during pregnancy. He can either disappear altogether, or, on the contrary, be elevated. An irresistible desire to eat something that a girl has never loved or even tried can also appear.
- Another symptom of pregnancy is sensitivity to odors. All smells a pregnant girl feels much sharper.
- Changing the emotional state of the girl. She can laugh, and in a minute she is already crying bitterly. Or start to scream and get angry for no reason.
- If a girl watches her basal temperature every day, then she can easily calculate the new pregnancy. In pregnant girls, the basal temperature is always slightly higher. Therefore, if the fever lasts for several days, then, most likely, the girl is pregnant.
- And the most reliable symptom is the absence of menstruation. Although their absence may be affected by stress, or catarrhal diseases.
- If the monthly did not come in time, then you can purchase a test to determine pregnancy. With a probability of 99%, he will say whether there is a pregnancy.
How to establish the duration of pregnancy in the early stages
The gestational age and the date of conception need to know not only the girl, but also her doctor. So the doctor will be able to monitor the development of the baby and more accurately notice its developmental lag. In addition, knowing the date of conception, you can pre-set the date of birth and in the future it will be clear whether the baby was born full-term or not. And so, how to find out the early term of pregnancy:
- The gynecologist can determine the exact duration of pregnancy by examining the size of the uterus during a gynecological examination of a girl.
- Also, the gynecologist can determine the correct duration of pregnancy according to the obstetric calendar. To do this, you need to tell the doctor the date when the last menstruation began and its duration. Having calculated everything, the doctor will tell you the day of conception and the preliminary term of delivery.
- Another period of pregnancy can be set according to the ultrasound examination. Moreover, the earlier this examination is carried out, the more accurately the pregnancy will be determined. In this regard, it is better to go on an ultrasound with a period of 6 to 8 weeks of pregnancy.
What can not be in early pregnancy
When the fact of pregnancy is confirmed, then you will have to limit yourself in many ways. These restrictions are simply necessary for the normal development and health of the tiny baby inside the girl. Therefore, the expectant mother must know what not to do in early pregnancy.
- And she can not lift weights, and engage in physical activity;
- It is also impossible to constantly be indoors, the child needs fresh air, so you need to walk daily;
- Try to avoid stressful situations;
- Be sure to completely abandon all their bad habits: you can not drink alcohol, smoke, and even more so to take narcotic drugs.
Special attention should be paid to pills and other medicines. during pregnancy, it is desirable to refuse them altogether, but if the girl is sick and their use is necessary, then you can take only those pills that the doctor will allow. Without his knowledge, it is strictly prohibited to take anything. In addition to pills as well you can not drink decoctions of herbs Hypericum, tansy, parsley, cornflower and nettle.
Be sure to start to monitor their diet. Add fresh vegetables, fruits, dairy products to your diet. Exclude from it smoked, fatty foods, carbonated drinks. And it is also desirable to abandon bread, coffee and strong tea.