Cystitis in a child at the age of 2 appears most often due to the pathological activity of bacteria and exposure to cold. There are some difficulties in the diagnosis of pathology, since two-year-old children cannot tell about their feelings: they signal painful symptoms with crying, anxiety.
Cystitis in a child at the age of 2 appears most often due to the pathological activity of bacteria and exposure to cold.
Forms of cystitis in babies
Inflammation can be acute and chronic. Young children mostly have an acute form of the disease. It develops as a result of bacterial infection entering the blister. Manifestations of this form of the disease are pain and pain during urination.
Chronic cystitis in a child appears if the acute stage of the disease has not been diagnosed or was treated incorrectly.
The disease is characterized by blurred symptoms: it is often difficult for parents to understand why a child is naughty and crying for a long time. The disease can worsen in case of hypothermia or non-compliance with the rules of hygiene.
By the nature of the pathology, catarrhal, hemorrhagic, ulcerative, polypous and cystic types of the disease are distinguished.
Causes of cystitis in children 2 years
Inflammatory processes in children develop as a result of the ingestion of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus, Streptococcus and other bacteria that can cause inflammation in the urinary tract. Rarely the cause of the formation of cystitis is the abnormal structure of the urinary tract: hypospadias (displacement of the external opening of the urethra), epispadias (partial or complete cleavage of the urethra). Sometimes the disease is provoked by pyelonephritis or worms.
Often in young children, microbes invade the bladder from the large intestine. There is a high risk of ascending infection. Inflammation in children goes faster if treatment is started promptly.
The abnormal structure of the urinary tract is called epispadias.
Additional predisposing factors:
- irregular emptying of the bladder;
- the presence of salts in the urine (urates, oxalates, phosphates);
- stress, frequent colds;
- prolonged constipation.
Cystitis in girls is diagnosed more often than in boys. This is due to the anatomical features of women: their urethra is short and wide, the infection can easily get into it from the anus. For this reason, inflammation of the bladder develops due to improper washing of the girl.
Sometimes cystitis occurs as a result of hypothermia. In this case, activation of pathogenic microorganisms occurs, as local immunity weakens.
The disease in boys is much less common, since their urethra is longer and thinner. A specific cause of cystitis in boys is phimosis (narrowing of the foreskin). In this case, the urine can move away with difficulty, provoking inflammation. Due to the constant accumulation of residues of urine and smegma in the preputial sac, pathogenic microorganisms are activated and inflammation occurs.
Other factors in the development of cystitis in boys:
- urinary retention;
- morphological changes of the bladder or urethra;
- neurogenic bladder;
In rare cases, the infection can enter the bladder through a household contact.
Symptoms in children
The main symptom of acute inflammation – frequent painful urination. Pain and pain are localized in the lower abdomen, above the pubis.
Sometimes the baby cannot urinate normally due to soreness. The appearance of blood at the end of urination is characteristic. There is also a change in the color of urine due to the admixture of blood, pus, mucus. In hemorrhagic cystitis, urine becomes the color of meat slop.
A fever may be a symptom of cystitis.
The frequency of urination directly depends on the severity of the inflammatory lesion of the bladder. In severe cases, false desires may occur. Typical is the emergence of enuresis, since the baby can not hold urine due to pain.
Other signs of cystitis include:
- temperature increase up to + 38 ° С;
- lethargy, weakness;
- decreased appetite;
- sleep disorders;
- expressed anxiety and crying baby.
Chronic disease can progress in latent and recurrent forms. With recurrent inflammation, chronic cystitis is exacerbated from time to time. There are symptoms of the acute form: frequent and painful urination.
Latent inflammation may not manifest. Periodically, children have frequent urges, enuresis. Sometimes the doctor associates such changes in the body with neurological disorders or age-related features.
Diagnosis of cystitis in 2 years
The doctor will be able to suspect the presence of inflammation of the bladder in a small patient during the examination.
Typical complaints are pain during urination and frequency of urging. It is important to study the history, nutritional characteristics of the child, his physical activity.
With the help of such examinations, cystitis can be recognized:
- General urine test. Bacteria and white blood cells, mucus, and blood may be present in urine. It is necessary that the urine is fresh and collected from the toilet of the genitals.
- Complete blood count (if there are no complications of the disease, then there should be no change in the indicators).
- Two-shot test. Differentiates the inflammation of the bladder from diseases of the genital organs. It is used more often in girls for the diagnosis of inflammatory pathologies in the vagina.
- Bacteria urine. Determines the presence of a cystitis pathogen.
- Ultrasound of the bladder.
- Endoscopy. Appointed only in chronic form. This procedure is performed under general anesthesia.
- Sometimes they use the study of urination rhythm and uroflowmetry.