According to psychological and social studies, throughout life, each person experiences several transitional periods, the first of which occurs at about four years of age. It is at this stage that the child begins to feel himself an independent person, to experience some previously unknown emotions, to realize his role in the family and to understand the attitude of others to him.
Physiology of a child of four years
By the beginning of the 4th year, the overwhelming majority of healthy babies, from a physiological point of view, can be considered fully prepared for adulthood. In children at this age, coordination of movements, fine and large motor skills, and speech are already well developed. The child effortlessly overcomes any obstacles in his path (steps, potholes, partitions, etc.), repeats many movements behind adults, self-dresses, undresses, eats, etc. If all the previous years of life each day the child was filled with physical activity now there is a period of psychological and mental development and, as a result, some decrease in mobility. For parents, during this period of time, it is very important to most rationally distribute the time spent by the baby. It is necessary, that board games, drawing, a molding and other quiet employment did not occupy all time of the child, and alternated with outdoor games.
According to the advice of experts, there are several ways to maintain the optimal balance of physical activity of the child throughout the day. First, it is very desirable that the kid attend kindergarten. Secondly, at the age of 4 it is quite possible to start practicing any kind of sports. Parents should offer their child to choose what he likes. It is possible that the child is recorded in several sections at once, so that later he could choose one. Thirdly, parents should be at least 2 hours a day, provided that the baby goes to kindergarten, walk with him on the street. Complying with all of these guidelines will help grow a fully developed personality.
Various whims, sometimes hysteria – all this is familiar to young parents for a long time, however, at the age of 4, this child’s behavior goes to a qualitatively new level. If earlier, bad behavior was dictated solely by instincts (feeling of hunger, pain, fatigue, etc.), now, irritability and disobedience is a form of behavior chosen by the child’s consciousness as the most appropriate in a particular situation. At the age of 4, he begins to shape the character of the child, his manner of communication with others, habits and other personal qualities that may be inherent to him throughout his life.
Modern psychologists identify several rules that should be followed in order to grow up a psychologically healthy, adequate and strong human spirit:
- Parents need to treat their child with due attention. You need to notice everything he does. Constantly enter into dialogue with him, express his own opinion and be interested in his opinion on any issues. We must not forget to praise the baby. Children lacking praise, as a rule, do not strive for anything, feel insecure. If the child has committed any bad misconduct, it is worth talking to the child calmly, explaining what he is wrong about. When a child fails, for example, tying his shoelaces, one should calmly and patiently show how to do it and practice with him;
- With a child to be considered. From the earliest years, the baby should feel that he is a full member of the family, and his opinion is considered. Only in this case, he has a chance to grow up a self-confident person who can stand up for himself;
- Children can never be deceived. If a tasty candy was promised to the baby in the evening, it means he should have this candy. If mom promised that in five days of visiting children. Garden without tears and hysterics buy a doll, then she must buy it. If you failed to fulfill the promise, you need to explain to the child what the reason is. Children already at this age understand absolutely everything. If a mom or dad cheats his child for no particular reason, then in a short enough time the child will stop believing them and at the same time will lie to them;
- It is important to follow the manner of your own behavior. A child at 4 years old, like a sponge, absorbs everything that he sees around him. If parents can afford boorish behavior, non-censorship, etc., then their child will eventually behave in the same way. Moreover, this behavior of the child will be observed not only in relation to strangers, but also to the parents themselves;
- For a child, you need to be a friend. Try to spend together as much time as possible, periodically arrange family holidays, go together on the nature, try to take it with you to rest. At the age of 4 it is already possible to attend various cultural places of recreation: children’s theaters, puppet theaters, Christmas trees, cinemas, performances, etc.
Skills and skills at 4 years
If we compare the skills and abilities of babies of 4 years of age, it becomes clear that they each have their own and may differ significantly. Someone knows all the letters of the alphabet and knows how to read, while someone counts up to twenty. One child can clean their own bed, and the other turn on the game on the computer. At this age, the child can do what he was taught.
Tips for parents of a child of four years
The first and most basic advice to parents of a 4-year-old baby is to be patient. It is from this period that the words why, why, and how will be heard many times a day in your house. The growing up baby is developing intensively and, every day, more and more questions about the structure of the surrounding world arise in his head. You should always calmly and calmly communicate with the child, it is available to answer all the questions posed. In no case can not excuse from the baby, or carry the conversation on the topic of interest, for later.
It is very desirable from the age of 4 to begin slowly to prepare a child for school. It would be appropriate to teach him numbers, letters, try to read. Such classes are best conducted in a playful way, so that the kid would have an interesting time and at the same time receive new knowledge. A visit to the preparatory circles and sports sections will also benefit the younger generation.
How to develop small and large motor skills of a child in 4 years
For the development of large motor skills, the best option would be to visit a kid of any sports club. When for some reason the parents do not have such an opportunity, it is worth spending daily exercises at home with the child. You can include fun, dynamic music every morning and the whole family perform a set of simple exercises. During the walk provoke him to outdoor games. For the development of fine motor skills, as in 2 and 3 years of age, you need to involve the child in drawing, modeling, sorting out seeds and other activities of the same type.
How a child plays at four
This period for the baby, in truth, can be called very responsible and at the same time fascinating. At the age of 4, children slowly pour into the society, begin to become a part of it, and also learn to win their place in it. The kids have their first friends with whom they participate in joint games. For this age, the most typical role-playing games that copy the life of adults. Most girls play daughters-mothers, hospital, kindergarten. At the same time, young ladies play the role of mothers, doctors, educators in these games. Among boys, the most popular games are police, driver, and military.
What does a child learn at the age of four
At this age, each baby continues to improve the already acquired skills. First of all it concerns the ability to serve himself. His speech is improving. The child is literally interested in everything that surrounds him and, as a result, considerably deepens his knowledge in everything. Experienced teachers advise it is during this period to begin the study of foreign languages, to learn rhymes and songs with the baby. From that, how much the memory of the child will actively develop from the age of 4, his learnability in the future largely depends.
How does a child behave
At the age of 4, the character of the baby is being formed, he begins to slowly understand what is good and what is bad. He has a lot of questions. Therefore, parents at this age should be quite tolerant and with understanding treats the needs of the child in receiving new and new information.
How does speech develop
Approximately 95 – 98% of children by this age are already in a position to quite clearly express themselves. Now comes the process of improving speech. The kid begins to pronounce such complex sounds as: p, w, y. The vocabulary is constantly updated with new words, however, the child does not understand the meaning of every word. Cases when children at that age use abusive words are not alone. Such a situation arises when someone from their environment regularly curses.
What is the main task of education
From birth, parents are the closest people to their baby. Their main task is to ensure that their child is a full physical and psychological education, to teach him to find a common language with other children, to adequately behave in the environment of adults. Parents should help their child to maximize their opportunities, give him the right to choose for themselves the hobby for the soul.
Video: how to teach a child to draw in 4 years.