Fourth month of pregnancy weekly
The beginning of the second trimester of pregnancy — the fourth month of pregnancy and the joint life of the mother and the fetus — has traditionally been considered a calm, gracious period. The unpleasant manifestations of early toxicosis have disappeared: now your body has adapted to the new state. The first was left behind, for many women a very acute period of psychological and physical adaptation, the reactions of the nervous system balanced themselves. You again feel calm, comfortable, confident!
In the fourth month of pregnancy, however, hypovitaminosis may develop. It is necessary to check the blood content of vitamin C and folic acid (the norm is 1.2 mg / 100 ml and 0.6 mg / ml, respectively).
AT 15-16th week of pregnancy conduct amneocentesis (amniotic fluid tests) for women who are at risk of having a baby with a genetic disorder.
13th – 16th week of pregnancy – one of the quietest “steps” to motherhood. You feel a surge of strength. I want to look good, enthusiastically engaged in work and daily activities. Well, if there are no diseases and complications, physical activity is not only not contraindicated – it is necessary! You can still work at your usual pace, almost without changing your lifestyle.
Walking is very useful. Take a walk! Long, up to two hours in a row, and only if you get tired, sit down to rest. It is great if you find half an hour before going to bed for an evening walk. In the evening, you can take a walk near the house, and in the afternoon, choose a route for walking far from busy highways. Movement in the open air improves the oxygen supply to the fetus, which is very necessary for its normal development.
13-14th week of pregnancy – a critical period for women with dysfunction of the adrenal cortex (especially if the boy is expected. By this time, the sex glands produce quite a lot of the male hormone – testosterone and, if the mother has a defect in the enzyme system of the adrenal cortex, the amount of androgens in her body will be increased). During pregnancy there is an inevitable dissonance. then the real threat of miscarriage. Women with hyperandrogenism of an adrenal genesis and an ovarian form are subject to it. The first type includes women of very tall, with narrow hips, long legs. In life, by the way, they are usually very active, energetic, sexy. However, statistics show that 95% of women with hyperandrogenism of adrenal genesis without hormonal therapy are threatened with miscarriage.
The second type – women of small stature, dense, strong, quickly getting fat, often with dark tendrils above the upper lip. They usually have a broken menstrual cycle (it is irregular, very long). To get pregnant and carry the child to such women is not easy.
Those and others at this stage of pregnancy must necessarily appear to the doctor, who will select the appropriate dose of drugs to prevent the loss of the child.
Placenta – fetus in the fourth month of pregnancy
By the 16th week, the yellow body of pregnancy in the ovary had almost died out. The placenta took over the entire hormone production. We already know how important it is to develop properly and mature in a timely manner. Finally it happened and ended. And now the placenta will simply grow, grow in size
Placentae only delivers oxygen and nutrients from the mother to the fetus and removes the end products of metabolism from its body, but also performs an extremely important function – provides the child’s body with essential proteins and hormones. Look at how impressive their range is: chorionic gonadotropin, estrogens, progesterone, corticosteroids, melanoform and thyroid hormones, placental lactogen, vasopressin, relaxin, tistamine, acetylcholine, etc. All this is necessary for the child to grow and grow without complications.
But it turns out, and the child’s body helps the placenta at this stage! The fact is that both the fetus and the placenta are separately imperfect systems due to the lack of enzymes necessary for the independent synthesis of steroid hormones essential for the whole pregnancy: progesterone and estrogens. Whether business together! And the tiny adrenal glands of a child with might and main “support” the placenta. Two enzyme systems work in a friendly way, complementing each other and forming a single functional hormonal “community”.
By analyzing the urine, the doctor can now determine how well the “placenta-fetus” union is established and assign the study to an indicator for the level of the hormone estriol. If its level is lowered, something is broken, and it means that the fetus is bad. Then the doctor decides how to correct the situation. Your task is to strictly follow all the prescription of the doctor, in time to do tests.
Amniocentesis is another very important study in pregnancy. Amniocentesis is not prescribed for everyone – only women from the risk group of having a child with developmental defects of a genetic nature and pregnant women over 35 years old (they have a higher probability of having a child with Down syndrome).
In the period of 15-16 weeks, you can take for analysis a little amniotic fluid, in which the child swims freely at this time. You remember: the amniotic fluid is nothing but a fluid that has passed through the placental membranes and the urine of the child himself. It is clear that in this aquatic environment around the baby contains the products of his life. So, you can determine the blood group and gender, the level of bilirubin, hormones, proteins and a number of other important indicators.
Amniocentesis allows the doctor to make a more accurate diagnosis, assess the development of the fetus and its condition in various obstetric pathology. For example, an increased amount in the amniotic fluid of afetoprotein indicates: the child has a defect in the central nervous system. The identification of such severe pathologies is the basis for referral to an abortion. It is important to undergo the amniocentesis at this time, since the uterus is now inert, non-excitable, and the procedure itself is the least dangerous.
Second trimester nutrition
You are no longer sick in the morning, the rejection of some food associated with early toxicosis has disappeared, and your appetite has improved – you noticed.
But note: now begins the increased need of the child’s body for proteins and vitamins. In the daily diet should be meat or fish (boiled or stewed), eggs and dairy products, especially cottage cheese. Vegetables, fruits, and greens are still welcome – suppliers of minerals and vitamins.
Do not chase expensive imported fruit. Strawberries, peaches, nectarines, apricots, plums grown in greenhouses are not rich in vitamins. Maybe the apples grown in our gardens are less beautiful, but prefer them. And have you forgotten about such an excellent source of vitamin C, like sauerkraut? Only it is fermented, not salty. Salads from carrots, cabbage, beets, apples, green radish – this is what should be on your table every day.
Studies in recent years have shown that half of those registered in the consultation of expectant mothers showed a deficiency of vitamin C and folic acid, which is “responsible” for the normal development of the brain. Therefore, take it very seriously to a special blood test to determine the amount of vitamin C and folic acid prescribed by the doctor.
After all, your need for ascorbine is increased by 2-3 times – the placenta consumes it most actively. Even before the study, it would not be superfluous to start regularly taking vitamin complexes for pregnant women. Usually it is a domestic gendevit or its American counterpart to the centrum, but any other multivitamins for pregnant women are suitable, now there are a lot of them for sale. Your baby should not need anything!
Fetus in the fourth month of pregnancy
In the fourth month of intrauterine life, your baby is rapidly gaining body weight. If at the end of the 12th week of pregnancy, he weighed 40-45 grams, by the 16th week of pregnancy it becomes significantly more weighty – 200 grams.
The main event of the fourth month of pregnancy is the intensive formation of the most complex organ, the most “vulnerable,” the most necessary human body – the cerebral cortex. Of course, all organs are important. But it is the gray matter of the cerebral cortex that makes man a human being, a thinking being.
13-14th week of pregnancy. The formation of almost all major organs is completed. Further they will grow, improve. All systems now begin to work in about the same way as in an adult (and previously they could temporarily perform “alien” duties).
The liver still “made” blood, now it takes its place in the digestive system. The red bone marrow picked up the blood-forming “baton” and, as expected, took over this function. Despite the fact that not all blood cells have taken shape, it is already possible to determine its group and the Rh factor.
The stomach, gallbladder, intestines begin to work diligently in a tiny organism. The first contents appear in the intestine: for the most part, it consists of bile.
15-16th week of pregnancy. The well-coordinated work of the whole body includes the kidneys. Two months ago, the primary kidney took part in the formation of the reproductive system, and the excretory functions were performed by the placenta. She now takes on the lion’s share, but the kidneys are already beginning to excrete urine into the amniotic fluid, the number of which is gradually increasing. The child, like an astronaut in zero gravity, swims freely in the amniotic fluid and feels great!
Improved endocrine glands – especially the adrenal glands. Now they are also able to produce hormones needed by the child during this period, contribute to the general hormonal level of the child’s body.
Fetal growth by the end of the fourth month of pregnancy– 14 cm
Fourth month of pregnancy
Begins the second trimeter. This is 13 – 16 weeks. Around the beginning of the fourth month, the doctor prescribes the first scheduled ultrasound examination. During the ultrasound, the size of the fetus is measured, the normal development of the fetus is checked. During the examination, you can see the future baby, see on the monitor how it moves. Many medical centers record ultrasound scans on video. If you are lucky, you can determine the sex of the child.
Mom begins to feel her position all the brighter. Quickly tired. The tummy begins to appear. Just it is time to put on clothes especially for pregnant women. Clothing should be comfortable, from natural materials, free. Do not actively use cosmetics. Do not stop walking in the fresh air. Eat properly and fully. After all, the baby needs vitamins and microelements for normal full growth. A balanced diet plays a crucial role in the state of you and the child. Tune in optimism, listen to your favorite music, read good literature. The baby at this time begins to move more actively. But his movements are very difficult to sense. Especially primiparous mothers. Pigmented spots may appear on the face of a pregnant woman. In addition, a brown stripe on the belly starts to appear from the navel to the bikini line. This is the fault of melanin, which is produced due to the increased formation of pregnancy hormones. Pigmentation will take place after delivery. First, the face will be cleared, and during the year the strip on the stomach will disappear. Pigmentation on the abdomen during pregnancy can be removed with grapefruit juice. It should be a month to wipe the skin with this juice. You can freeze parsley juice and wipe your face with ice. The same can be done with cucumber
The fourth month of pregnancy is dangerous for women with dysfunction of the adrenal cortex. The danger increases if a boy is expected. This is due to testosterone. Women at risk are advised to make an analysis of amniotic fluid. This will establish the malformations, find out his blood group, the level of bilirubin, hormones and proteins, the sex of the child. Thus, the condition of the fetus is assessed, possible pathologies are warned. This procedure is safe at this time due to the inertia of the uterus.
7 8 weeks of pregnancy.
The formation of the main organs is almost completed. All in their places. Initially, the baby has a length of 9 cm and a weight of approximately 60 g. By the 13th week, the beginnings of milk teeth appear. By the end of the fourth month, the fruit has a length of about 12-15 cm and a weight of about 120 – 180 g. The ossification of the skull begins. The kid begins to move more actively. But the movements are still very weak. Therefore, they are not felt. Fingers are already well formed. The formation of the muscular system is completed. Limbs are lengthened.
The kid learns to bend and unbend the elbows. Well-defined facial features, chin, forehead, nose. And the ears and eyes became closer to the usual normal position. By the end of the fourth month, the first hairs appear on the head. About every 45 minutes, the baby empties its bladder into the amniotic fluid. The kid is trying to move the lower jaw. Squeezes the cams. Sex organs are intensively formed. During this period, the placenta is forming more and more. A healthy placenta ensures normal pregnancy. The placenta is filled with blood vessels. It transmits nutrients to the fetus, oxygen, removes slags, provides the body of the fetus with essential proteins and hormones. The umbilical cord is enlarged and extended. If for the first 3 months the head of the fetus grew faster than the body, then now the growth rate of the head is slower compared to the body. The baby already feels everything, reacts to stimuli. For example, it can move away from the hands of a gynecologist, feeling the belly of the future mother. Baby hears external sounds. By about 15, individual fingerprints appear. Villi appear in the intestine. The pancreas begins to produce insulin. His heart drives about 23 liters of blood per day.
Editor: obstetrician-gynecologist, work experience 11 years, Anna Sozinova