Pancreatitis attack is a common problem in the life of modern society. The problem deserves close attention, as the proportion of young people suffers more.
Always the beginning of the attack dramatically affects the quality of life, general well-being, there are complaints. It is necessary in time to "recognize the enemy and neutralize."
Timely assistance is a guarantee of preserving human health. How to remove an attack of pancreatitis at home? Is it possible? What is the right thing to do?
The attack of acute pancreatitis, its features
The evolution of an acute pancreatitis attack consists of the following stages: acute attack, subsidence of an attack, resolution (recovery or the formation of complications, transition to a chronic variant), a second acute attack.
- For the most common reasons, capable of provoking the occurrence of an acute attack of pancreatitis include: alcohol, plentiful eating, pathology of the gallbladder and its ducts, traumatic damage, surgery, biopsy, oncology of the pancreas (cancer), elevated cholesterol (hyperlipidemia).
- Rare causes include: drugs, vascular pathology, autoimmune diseases, infections (viruses, HIV, worms, etc.), allergies, snake bites, hereditary pancreatitis, gestational period, pathology of neighboring organs, and idiopathic pancreatitis (when the cause cannot be established).
Symptoms of a pancreatitis attack appear suddenly:
- acute pain (pancreatic colic),
- temperature rise
- increased heart rate and breathing
- nausea and vomiting possible
- sometimes jaundice.
Deviations in laboratory tests are recorded. In the blood test, an increase in the level of leukocytes is recorded, with a shift of the leukocyte formula to the left, a decrease in lymphocytes, an increase in ESR.
Detection of markers of inflammation in blood biochemistry, growth of C-reactive protein and fibrinogen, etc. There is an overestimated level of pancreatic enzymes in blood biochemistry: amylase, lipase, elastase, trypsin.
Hardware methods (MRI, CT, ultrasound) are useful for diagnostics.
It is necessary to exclude diseases with similar complaints in order to exclude errors: myocardial and intestinal infarction, perforated gastric ulcer, cholecystitis with stones and acute cholecystitis, aortic rupture gap, renal colic and other causes.
In addition, other symptoms may occur, but less often: symptoms of intestinal obstruction, bloating and gas formation (flatulence), dehydration, symptoms of shock, heart or kidney failure.
Less common symptoms are: fluid accumulation in the abdomen (ascites), pleural (lungs) and pericardial (pericardial) cavities, decreased calcium in the blood, subcutaneous zones of destruction and suppuration, thrombosis of the internal veins, coagulation disorder, brain damage and blindness.
Classify attacks of acute pancreatitis by severity: mild, moderate, severe attack. This is important for further treatment and prognosis.
- Acute pancreatitis mild expressed in minimal manifestations of lesions of the pancreas. Dysfunction suffers a little. The structure of the gland rarely changes, when monitored with CT (computed tomography). Normalization occurs within three days. Complications are not recorded. Ends safely with full restoration of function. This degree is detected in 50% of diseased people. An attack of pancreatitis can be repeated if the cause is not eliminated.
- Approximately 25% of people develop an attack. moderate severity. Sometimes complications are formed (pseudocyst, inflammation and induration around the gland, purulent fusion of the gland). It is possible that other organs with a disorder of their functioning are affected, this condition lasts up to 2 days.
- The remaining 25% of people develop severe pancreatitis. It is characterized by extensive damage to the pancreas, surrounding organs. Venous bleeding, respiratory failure, and renal failure develop. Life threatening condition. Complications are found extremely often (cysts, pseudocysts of the gland, necrosis and suppuration of the gland, impaired clotting, electrolyte imbalance). This attack lasts over two days.
What to do when pancreatitis attack?
Primary care is to assess the patient’s condition and seek medical help. Do not feed, do not water, provide peace!
Certain complaints are suspicious for the onset of an acute pancreatitis attack: intense pain syndrome, more often of shingles, agonizing and repeated vomiting, tension of the abdominal muscles.
It is possible to find out the reasons preceding the deterioration of the condition (alcohol intake, overeating, trauma, gallstone disease, etc.).
This category of people is subject to urgent transportation to the surgical department, the emergency call “03” is recommended in such situations.
Doctor "03" ambulance can reduce pain, the introduction of painkillers, antispasmodics and anti-inflammatory drugs.
In the emergency department, they quickly take the necessary tests and perform ultrasound, CT (abdominal). Further, according to the results, the doctor makes a conclusion about the diagnosis and further treatment. Further treatment should be carried out in the hospital.
At the initial stage, medication is carried out, and surgery is carried out with the development of complications.
An attack of chronic pancreatitis, its features
Evolution of an attack of chronic pancreatitis: exacerbation, subsiding exacerbation, resolution (remission, the formation of complications).
Unlike an attack of acute pancreatitis, an attack in chronic pancreatitis has a number of differences. The duration of previous pancreatitis usually exceeds 6 months, with alternating seizures and periods of well-being.
A key complaint in the onset of chronic pancreatitis is pain. Attacks of pain with time may change, the intensity of attacks, their location, involvement of closely located organs in the process.
Pain can be in the right side, left or in the middle, can take shingles in inflammation of the intestinal loops. The pain appears immediately after or half an hour after eating.
Eating is the starting point of pain. When diagnostic search reveals the presence of complications, signs of chronic pancreatitis.
Insufficient production of pancreatic enzymes is expressed in the following symptoms: diarrhea or loose stools, a large amount of feces, bloating, flatulence, abdominal discomfort, loss of appetite, fatty feces, drooling, belching, nausea, repeated vomiting.
Complaints are diverse, and not only related to pancreatitis, but also related to neighboring organs. As a result of an attack of pancreatitis, the iron swells up and can squeeze the adjacent organs.
In the process of compression of the intestine is obtained intestinal obstruction. Jaundice is diagnosed by squeezing the duct of the gallbladder, blocking it with a stone. Compression of the hepatic and splenic veins leads to ascites, an increase in the volume of the spleen, and varicose veins.
What to do when pancreatitis attack?
During the development of an attack, there is a threat to human life, so you need to get medical help. Help is provided in the hospital in the surgical department. In severe cases in intensive care.
At the first stage, the inflamed gland is disconnected from the digestion. Assign fasting to three days, possibly more, depending on the situation. Further, the gradual expansion of the diet, methods of diet.
The use of enzymes (pancreatin, creon) is required, they improve the digestion of food.
The next steps in the treatment are the fight against intoxication, purulent complications, high numbers of enzymes in the blood, replenishment of fluids and vital substances in the body, maintaining the viability of the human body.
At the final stage, events are held that are interested in changing lifestyle, preventing recurrent seizures and preventing the development of complications.
Surgical treatment is approximately 20% of patients:
- in the onset of calculous cholecystitis, blockage with a duct stone;
- pathology of the sphincter of Oddi;
- development of purulent destruction of the pancreas (pancreatic necrosis);
- pain remaining after treatment;
- combination with signs of "acute abdomen",
- combination with acute cholecystitis,
- pancreatic cancer detection
- bleeding from varicose veins;
- thrombosis of the splenic vein;
- abscesses and cystic formations in the gland, other causes.
Drug treatment during an attack is aimed at eliminating pain and restoring the affected functions of the pancreas.
With alcoholic pancreatitis, refusing to take alcohol increases the survival rate in this group by up to 40%. When identifying stones in the biliary system, it is recommended to remove them and prevent the re-formation of stones.
Summing up, the benefits of early medical care become apparent. Being at home in a pancreatitis attack is dangerous! Opportunities to clarify the causes of pain and clarify the diagnosis of pancreatitis, at home there is simply no.
Assisting at home in a pancreatitis attack is life threatening! At home, conduct activities aimed at reducing the risk of re-attack, after discharge. Refusing to take alcohol, dieting, eliminating the cause of the pancreatitis attack and performing the doctor’s prescriptions.
She graduated from Smolensk State Medical Academy. Works in GBUZ CDC 4 DZM Branch 4, Moscow, head. therapeutic department. Work experience of 8 years.