Summary of the article:
Among the many plants in the store attracts particular attention orchids. These beautiful flowering plants will decorate any interior, but the main thing is to look after them correctly, so that they will delight with their beauty for a long time.
It is necessary to properly select the soil, maintain the level of humidity, light, water the plant, so as not to harm and cause the death of the flower.
How to adapt and care for the flower after purchase
For an orchid, changing places and moving is a stressful situation. To pass without consequences, it is necessary to observe quarantine for some time. It lasts about a few weeks. For it, the plant is placed in a room where there are no other flowers.
If there is no separate room, the orchid is placed on a separate shelf, but away from direct sunlight.
New orchid needs rest. She is not fertilized at this time. The flower should gradually adapt to the new microclimate. In the first weeks, you can refuse from abundant watering; it is enough to monitor the condition of the stem and the main leaves in order to eliminate pests and diseases in time.
After a few weeks, the orchid can be placed on the window-sill to other plants, but it is better not to immediately, but to stand for a couple of hours in the evening or in the morning, so that the plant gradually becomes accustomed to a new light regime. It is also time to water the indoor flower.
Varieties and types of orchids
Flower growers adore beautifully blooming orchids, the types of which there are a huge variety. The most common are the following:
- Phalaenopsis is the leading variety for its beautiful flowering. It is grown at home and perfectly adapts to a different microclimate. The plant requires moderate watering, moderate top dressing, darkened sill, average humidity in the room.
- Cymbidium is a luxurious orchid variety, ideal for artificial breeding on a regular window sill. The colors of the flowers are usually pastel, bright and warm. They usually appear in winter.
- Cattleya – a colorful flower – crimson, yellowish, purple, pinkish. Loves a moderately warm and warm room, bright lighting, average humidity, good drainage conditions for the soil. Water the orchid with softened warm water.
- Dendrobium is a convenient room culture for growing and caring. Gives lavender flowers and blooms for several weeks. Contained at medium temperature conditions, requires infrequent feeding. It tolerates a dry climate if the flower is periodically sprayed.
- Miltonia looks like a pansy flower. It’s a good idea to keep such an orchid not on the windowsill, but in the middle of the room. It needs fresh air intake, as well as protection from direct sun, uniform and frequent soil moistening, but without drying out and over-wetting the substrate.
Proper lighting for the plant
This is an important parameter for the proper care and cultivation of a healthy plant. He determines whether the flower will give new shoots, enter flowering. With proper lighting, flowers will appear regularly. With a lack of light or an excess of leaves gradually brighten, turn yellow and dry.
When choosing a place for a plant, it is necessary to consider the following points:
- long daylight hours, at least 12 hours. If this period is less, it is necessary to light the flower in an artificial way – with luminescent lighting devices;
- Orchid prefers abundant diffused light. Direct sun does not fit;
- in the summer months it is better to put the plant in a darkened place, you can stick a matte film on the windows so that no direct rays fall on the leaves;
- it is not necessary to darken the foliage in the autumn season, because right now the shoot is ripening, a period of rest begins.
If you do not comply with such conditions, the plant may gradually die.
Literate watering orchids
In nature, orchids bloom in conditions remote from high humidity. Their root system does not tolerate stagnant water, although different varieties require their own conditions, for example, Dendrobium grows well in a dry substrate that needs to be rarely moisturized. Phalaenopsis prefers moist substrate. In general, all varieties of orchids are universal to a temporary drought and waterlogging.
Reinforced watering is needed when the plant is actively releasing flowers. If it does not receive enough water, the leaves will shrink, and if they soak and turn yellow, rot, this is an indicator of excessive waterlogging of the soil.
In the winter months, when the room is cool and not enough lighting, it is not necessary to moisten the roots of orchids. The same is suitable in the period of calm and after the flowering stage.
Properly water the flower with soft non-rigid water. Ideal rain or melt water, although suitable and ordinary boiled. In the hot season, the orchid is watered as the top layer of the soil dries out, about 1-2 times a week. After watering, the water should drain from the drainage holes of the pot.
According to the air temperature necessary for normal growth, orchids are divided into several types:
- Cold-loving plants grow in natural conditions in areas of high mountains. For them, the ideal temperature regime – plus 12-15 degrees in the winter and at night, and in the summer and in the daytime – up to plus 22 degrees.
- Medium temperature plants grow in mountainous tropical regions. In the summer, during the day the temperature is 18-23 degrees, and at night and in the winter months – 12-16 degrees.
- Heat-loving flowers grow in tropical climates. They love the warm climate from 18-32 degrees. At night they need 15-18 grams. The difference in the day should not be more than 5 indicators.
On average, almost all varieties of orchids are suitable for home cultivation in Russia, if in winter the room is properly heated.
Top dressing and fertilizers for an orchid
Any home ornamental plant needs to be fed and fertilized. This is necessary in the period of release of buds and enhanced growth. Fertilizer is applied to the soil no more than once a month. Fertilizers from the store are suitable – Bona Forte, Greenworld.
It is necessary to carefully study the recommendations on the packaging of products, so as not to overdo it and not to harm the plant. Orchids can not tolerate an excess of minerals in the soil.
For fertilizer, wash the soil with plain water, alternating normal watering with top dressing. It is not necessary to feed a green pet in winter and during the rest period. Fertilizers need to use only those that are produced specifically for orchids.
Amateur flower growers and professionals do not often prefer to feed their orchids. Frequent application of fertilizers reduces the flower’s own defenses. Usually the flower gets everything you need from a quality substrate. It is updated every 1-2 years.
How to choose the right flower in the store
When buying a beautiful plant in a nursery, garden store or greenhouse, you need to pay attention to the following factors:
- it is best to order a flower from the nursery;
- the root system must be branched and solid, partially protruding from the soil;
- leaves should have a uniform color – reddish-greenish or emerald green tone without yellow spots or inclusions, foliage should not be dried, sluggish;
- choose a flower variety suitable for home care;
- you should buy an orchid during flowering to see the color, dimension and shape of the flowers;
- leaves should look healthy, fresh, bright, without dried and torn buds and branches.
You can not buy a diseased plant at a discount. After purchase, it is packaged in a bag so as not to damage it during transportation and not to subject it to sudden temperature changes.
How to grow orchids at home
An amazing plant is propagated in different ways:
- Vegetative reproduction is suitable for all varieties of orchids. You just need to divide the root system of the flower. In each pot leave an ear. This method is ideal if the plant is old enough and large. It is pulled out of the pot, shaken off the ground and the roots are separated with gardening scissors. Sections sprinkled with loose charcoal and placed in separate pots. Every day the substrate is moistened with a sprayer until the first shoots appear.
- Propagation of flowers by layering. Such processes appear in cylindrical and long shoots. Part of the stem is bent down and a small greenhouse is made, for example, from a small plastic jar. Dormant buds moisturize and wait for them to take root and give roots. Additionally, the escape can be warmed up. Approximately in a couple of weeks he should start up new leaves. The whole ear is then separated from the main shoot and transplanted into a small pot. It is located in a warm place or create a greenhouse.
- Reproduction by young shoots. Small new processes are suitable for the separation and reproduction of plants. Side cob is separated and treated with charcoal. Soon, these "kids" let the roots out if they are watered.
Soil for a new or old plant can be bought in the store. In its composition should be foam, moss, chopped bark of coniferous wood, expanded clay, charcoal. The pot should also be spacious so that the roots do not feel cramped.
Often, growers buy transparent pots with holes for drainage. During the transplant inspect the roots. Remove rotted parts with pruning shears or garden shears, cuts are treated with coal and dried. Loose leaves pruned at the root.
Proper orchid care during and after flowering
During flowering, it is important to take good care of the indoor plant. He needs sufficient watering. A warm shower and spraying is recommended. Night temperature, especially in winter, it is better to raise a couple of degrees, using heating devices. So that the roots do not rot, it is necessary to remove all the remaining liquid under the pot after watering.
Replanting a blooming orchid is not desirable so that it does not throw off the flowers and buds. His need to feed. Moving the pot here too is not recommended.
After the flowering stage, the peduncles turn black and dry. They are cut off at the very root. In winter, during the cold season, it is enough to water the flower several times a month and sprinkle as well. You can change the location by choosing a lighted place.
In the period of tranquility, it is really possible to take up breeding or transplanting into a more suitable pot with a new fresh substrate.
Ideal moisture for orchid growth
For successful growth of a healthy tropical plant, the level of air moistening is important. In the summer, a level of 60-70% is enough. In winter, you need to moisten the air by artificial means, because the heating devices dry the air very much. To maintain an optimal rate, moisturizers or wet towels are used.
A young plant can be placed in a shallow wet tray with moss. Also used moist clay. Carefully and regularly flower growers spraying the leaves. On open roots and succulent leaves the fungus can grow if after spraying the plant is exposed to overcooling, therefore it should be protected from drafts.
Why is the orchid sick and yellow?
When growing and caring for orchids, various situations may arise that require a competent approach:
- Orchid dries and does not bloom. Maybe the flower is at rest and only recently faded. This is normal. Quite possibly the plant does not have enough light, too short a light period. If so, you need to include lighting in the evening. Flowers and buds do not appear if the plant is planted in too large a pot. All growth goes to the foliage. The flower dries if the roots are damaged or if the correct temperature is not observed for the green pet. A young plant does not bloom. It is worth waiting for the first year.
- Leaves infect pests. Most often the plant is attacked by mealybugs or spider mites. The flower can be bought already infected. To eliminate the problem and save the pet, it is treated with soapy water or wipe the leaves with special tools from the store.
- Why leaves turn yellow. This is quite common in domestic orchids. This is associated with the preparation for hibernation. At the same time, the lowest leaves close to the roots turn yellow. They need to be removed after complete drying. If young shoots and foliage turn yellow, especially in spring, it is necessary to reduce watering, as the roots rot.
A beautiful flower will delight its owner for many years, if properly and carefully take care of him and adhere to the rules of reproduction, transplantation, watering and feeding.