Plantain large – herb plant of the family Plantain (lat. Plantaginaceae). Botanical name – Plantágo májor. Generic name – Plantain.
Folk names are a seven-inus, a cutter, a traveling companion, a plantain, boil grass, plantain grass.
Plantain plant is a perennial up to 70 cm tall, with a shortened thick rhizome and a thick bundle of roots. Flowering stems are leafless, ascending at base.
Leaves in the rosette, naked, broadly ovate or elliptical, with arched venation. Thanks to these veins, plantain leaves do not break and successfully withstand trampling.
The flowers are small inconspicuous, collected in a dense, long cylindrical spike at the top of the stem. Corolla membranous light brownish; stamens with dark lilac anthers and white filaments, far protruding from the corolla. The fruit is an egg-shaped box with 8-16 (34) small angular, brown seeds.
The smell of the plant is absent, the taste is bitter, slightly astringent.
Plantain blooms from late May to September, the fruits ripen in August – September. One plant produces up to 60 thousand seeds. Propagated by seeds.
The large plantain is widespread throughout almost the entire CIS, with the exception of the Extreme North. It grows on roadsides (for which it got its name), paths, wastelands, near dwellings, in vegetable gardens, gardens, crops, on floodplain and upland meadows, on rich and sufficiently moist soils.
Collecting and harvesting plantain
Medicinal raw materials are leaves that are harvested throughout the summer. Green intact leaves are pruned with a small part of the stem and dried quickly under a canopy or in a dryer at 40-50 ° C, scattering a thin layer. With slow drying, the leaves easily turn black (the action of aukubin glycoside). Plantain leaves are also used fresh.
Seeds are harvested in a mature state along with peduncles. Raw materials can be stored for 2 years.
The composition and therapeutic properties of plantain
Plantain leaves contain a large amount of mucous substances, polysaccharides, glycosides (aukubin, plantagin), bitterness, tannins, flavonoids, phytoncides, carbohydrate mannitol, sorbitol, organic acids (salicylic, citric, etc.), choline, alkaloids, carotenoids, chlorophyll , vitamins C and K, factor T (contributing to an increase in blood clotting).
The leaves contain a sufficient amount of potassium, calcium, magnesium, barium, boron. Concentrates copper, bromine. Plantain seeds contain up to 44% mucus consisting of mannitol and starch, fatty oil, carbohydrates, saponins, tannins and proteinaceous substances.
Plantain has a hemostatic, antimicrobial, wound healing, expectorant and pressure reducing effect.
Juice of plantain leaves is recommended for the treatment of patients with chronic colitis and acute gastrointestinal diseases (gastritis, enteritis, enterocolitis). The drug is administered orally for 1 tablespoon 3 times a day for 15-20 minutes before meals. It is sold in pharmacies.
Pharmaceutical companies produce plantain glucid from the plantain leaves in the form of granules, which are prescribed for the treatment of hypo- and anacid gastritis and gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcer with normal and low acidity of gastric juice (plantaglucid slightly increases acidity).
The use of plantain in folk medicine
The history of the use of the plantain with medical purposes goes back to ancient times. Anyway, back in the first millennium
The Great Avicena, in his “Canon of Medicine”, recommended to take plantain leaves as a hemostatic agent for tumors, chronic and malignant ulcers, eye inflammation, kidney, liver, and elephant disease.
Plantain seeds, he prescribed for diarrhea and bloodletting. Plantain seeds, pounded in wine (as well as leaves boiled in wine), were used for dysentery, for bloody diarrhea. Seeds were also used as a laxative: in whole or in powdered form, one tablespoon at night or in the morning before meals with jelly or tea.
Before taking the seeds poured boiling water and quickly drained, so as not to lose mucus. There is another recipe: 1 tablespoon of seeds is brewed with half a cup of boiling water, allowed to cool, and then drunk along with the seeds.
Fresh leaves are used to treat boils, burns, and purulent wounds. They are well washed, incised with a razor or knife, placed in several layers on the affected skin and fixed with a bandage. Dry leaves are pre-steamed in hot water.
In cosmetology, plantain is used for hair care, as part of masks and rinses.
Plantain Ointment Large
If you do not heal for a long time and the wound festers, the skin on the fingers cracks, prepare a bactericidal and wound healing ointment (can be used in the treatment of ulcers, including trophic ones, in the healing of varicose ulcers on the legs). Dry leaves of the plantain grind into powder and mix with 2-3 drops of vegetable oil, and then with vaseline in the ratio of 1: 9.
Infusion of dry leaves
Prepared at the rate of 1 tbsp. spoon of dry leaves for 1 cup of boiling water, insist 15 minutes and take 1 tbsp. spoon 3-4 times a day for 20 minutes before a meal in the treatment of lung diseases. In the same dosage infusion is used for the treatment of various inflammatory diseases of the gastrointestinal tract (enteritis, enterocolitis, colitis).
Especially good effect of infusion is observed in the treatment of gastritis with low acidity of gastric juice and chronic colitis. This infusion is recommended to prepare using purified or melt water.
Since the infusion of plantain leaves contributes to the dilution, dissolution and secretion of sputum, it is actively used in various diseases of the respiratory system, coupled with the release of mucous sputum: pleurisy, pulmonary tuberculosis, chronic bronchi, asthma, whooping cough and cough. For eye inflammation, an infusion is used for washes.
Spirit tincture of plantain
Prepared as follows: 20 g of dry crushed leaves pour 1 glass of vodka and insist in a dark place for 14 days. After that, the infusion is filtered and stored tightly closed in the refrigerator. To use this infusion is recommended 30 drops 3 times a day in the same cases as the infusion, as well as with high blood pressure.
Plantain Leaf Syrup
Rinse the young leaves, let them dry and chop. Then layered in layers in a jar, falling asleep each leaf layer 1 cm high with sugar or pouring honey. Thus, dying a lot, you need to fill the entire jar. Insist in a dark place for 10 days, then drain the released syrup and take it 1 teaspoon 3 times a day 20 minutes before meals for inflammation of the upper respiratory tract, as well as for intestinal and gastric diseases.
Even better results are observed when using juice from fresh leaves.
To obtain juice in summer conditions, the leaves are cut off with a part of the stem, washed thoroughly in cold running water, allowed to flow, scalded, passed through a meat grinder and squeezed through dense fabric. In hot weather, the juice is thick and viscous, so it should be diluted with boiled water in a 1: 1 ratio. Ready juice is boiled for 2-3 minutes, after which it can be consumed.
Remember that this juice can be stored in the refrigerator for no more than 3 days. Take it to 1 tbsp. spoon 3 times a day for 15-20 minutes before meals. Juice is contraindicated in case of hyperacid gastritis, gastric ulcer with increased acidity of gastric juice.
In the spring the plantain is quite edible, moreover, it contains many vitamins, biologically active substances and microelements. From the leaves of the plantain and dandelion can cook a delicious and healthy fortified salad.
Plantain is contraindicated in case of increased acidity and excessive production of gastric juice, as well as in certain types of ulcers of the gastrointestinal tract. There are also some types of peptic ulcer and intestinal ulcers in which psyllium preparations are contraindicated. Therefore, before the use of drugs on the basis of plantain should consult a doctor.
Contraindications for the treatment of this plant will be increased blood clotting, the presence of blood clots. Prolonged use of drugs from the plantain can cause high blood clotting and cause a tendency to thrombosis.
Another contraindication is individual intolerance to this plant or allergic reactions to it. For this reason, allergy sufferers and asthmatics should be especially careful to start treatment with plantain. For a start, you can take small doses so that the body is accustomed to a new drug, and thus avoid strong allergic reactions.