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The subject of ecology. Ecological factors. Ecosystems. Energy flow and supply chains.
Today in the issue … learn the basic concepts and laws of the topic; study the material of the textbook; master the methods of studying and explaining the phenomena studied in the subject; learn how to solve environmental problems; prepare for a test on the topic.
Confrontation with mystery 1 challenge. A real historical fact is known when the clover imported to Australia did not produce seeds. What do you think was the reason? 2 task. Cacti – plants of the New World, that is, come from South and North America, as well as the islands of the West Indies. There are, besides America, also in Africa, in Madagascar and Sri Lanka, they grow in places with a very arid climate. Remember and explain how cacti adapt to drought tolerance? 3 task. Today, on the Plan Earth, millions of hectares of deciduous and coniferous forests are destroyed annually due to fires. After fires, the mosses and ferns growing in them disappear. Explain why?
Ecology is the science of the interactions of living organisms with each other and with the environment, the influence of man on living organisms. The term ecology was proposed in 1866 by the German zoologist Ernst Haeckel, ecology (from the Greek. Oikos) – dwelling, house, shelter.
Interactions Environmental factors The sky is light blue, The sun shines golden, The wind leaves the leaves, The cloud floats in the sky. Flowers, trees and grass, Mountains, air and foliage, Birds, animals and forests, Thunder, fogs and dew, Man and the season – These are factors of nature.
Environmental Factors Examples Abiotic Biotic Anthropogenic
Limiting factors The law of minimum: the successful activity of the organism is limited by the ecological factor, the quantity and quality of which are close to the minimum necessary for the organism (J. Liebig in 1840)
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Creative page of the press photographer
An ecosystem is any community of living beings, together with its physical habitat, functioning as a whole. Arthur Tansley (1935)
Vladimir Sukachev (1940)
What is what? Who is who?
The species structure of a community is the species composition of its organisms and the proportion of species populations. The morphological structure of a community is its spatial composition. Vertical vegetable community is divided into tiers. Horizontally, the community is also divided into separate elements – microgroups. The trophic structure is a diagram of all food interactions between species of this community. The food chain is the channel through which matter and energy are transmitted.
Autotrophs – self-powered, or producers (producers). Heterotrophs are organisms that feed on ready-made organic substances. Consumers – consumers. Reducers – destructors (decomposers).
Types of food chains
These mysterious pyramids
Rule 10%: from one trophic level of the ecological pyramid passes to another, its higher level, on average, about 10% of the energy supplied to the previous level of the ecological pyramid (R. Lindeman (1942)).
“Minute of Thought” rubric Objective: knowing the 10 percent rule (ecological pyramid rule), calculate how much phytoplankton will be needed for one whale to weigh 150 tons to grow? (food chain: phytoplankton — zooplankton — whale) Solution: 150,000 x 10 = 1,500,000 kg. 1,500,000 x 10 = 15,000,000 kg. (15,000 tons)
Asked-answer 1. An ecosystem is a biological system consisting of a community of living organisms (biocenosis), their habitat, a communication system, exchanging matter and energy between them. 2. Ecosystems formed as a result of human economic activity are agrocenoses. 3. All environmental factors acting on organisms are divided into biotic, geological and anthropogenic. 4. The first link in the food chain are producers. 5. Second-order consumers eat plant foods. 6. Producers in the dark phase of photosynthesis form ATP molecules. 7. Reducers destroy organic matter, formed only by consumer, to inorganic. Catch the mistake
Homework Paragraph 67-70. Find examples of inverted ecological pyramids. Independent work number 7. Prepare a presentation on the theme "Environmental disasters of our century"
learn the basic concepts and laws of the topic; study the material of the textbook; master the methods of studying and explaining the phenomena studied in the subject; learn how to solve environmental problems; prepare for a test on the topic.
-Now I know … -The most difficult for me was … -The most interesting for me was …
Thanks for the work!
An eagle, striving from under the sky with an arrow, threatens the dove with evil death; Dove f, like a sheep, must, feeding, destroy sprouts and seeds. To an owl-hunter, in the middle of a dark night, it is not a pity the singer of love and his languid languor, And the nightingale eats up the firefly, without looking at the charm of the fire. The firefly, the night lights quickened, creeping up, the flower eats up sleepy. (C. Darwin) Seeds dove eagle Flower firefly nightingale owl
By topic: methodical developments, presentations and notes
The presentation reveals the issues of the influence of environmental factors on the plant organism.
Summary and presentation to class 5 class cooking. Importance of vegetables, berries and fruits in human nutrition. Cooking vegetable salad and berry kissel at the end of the abstract has technological charts.
The presentations show trophic levels of biocenoses and types of food chains, grazing and detritus.
Presentation on the topic: The flow of energy and the food chain, the ecological pyramid.
biology lesson in grade 11.
Methodical development of a biology lesson.
A lesson in the form of an oral journal. Technological map – magazine.