All about E-supplements and food
Preservatives have been used for more than one millennium. The most ancient natural preservatives are salt, wine, honey, alcohol, vinegar. Now in the production of products are increasingly used preservatives of synthetic origin, as they have greater efficiency and lower cost of production.
According to European standards, the group of preservative additives is marked with E2xx (from E200 to E299).
Valisin, E 234, Nisin, E234, Valizin.
Nisin (food additive E234) is a peptide antibiotic formed by the microorganism Streptococcus lactis. The depressant properties of nisin were described in 1944, although research in this area began much earlier. Back in 1928, it was discovered that some bacteria of the genus Streptococcus promote the formation of substances that inhibit other lactic acid bacteria. From the 50s of the 20th century, industrial production of nisin began, and a little later, nisin began to be used in the food industry as a preservative with the E234 label.
Nisin (food additive E234) is produced by fermentation with the help of bacteria Lactococcus Lactis. The initial product for the cultivation of bacteria are natural substrates, such as milk or glucose.
By its chemical structure, nisin is similar to such peptide antibiotics as subtilin, cinnamycin, and duramycin. The nisin polypeptide chain includes 29 amino acid residues, some of which are never found in proteins. The chemical formula of nisin (preservative E234): C143H230N42O37S7. E234 additive is highly soluble in water, which expands the range of its application.
Nisin as a food additive-preservative E234 tends to suppress gram-positive bacteria (staphylococci, streptococci, etc.), many spore-forming and some acid-resistant bacteria. Additive E234 has a high reactivity of unsaturated amino acid residues that interact with SH groups of enzymes. As a result, nisin has such antimicrobial activity.
Like other antibiotics, nisin can kill not only harmful, but also beneficial bacteria involved in the life of the human body. Therefore, it is not recommended to use a large number of products with the preservative E234.
Also, the additive E234 has preservative properties, for example, it can inhibit the overgrowth of all bacterial spores that cause spoilage of products that are cooked. The use of nisin can reduce the time or temperature of heat exposure, which allows you to save useful substances in products. For example, when using the supplement E234, the loss of vitamin C (supplement E300) is reduced by 30-35%, and the beneficial beta-carotene (dietary supplement E160a) is preserved completely.
E234 food additive is actively used in cheese making, in canning meat and dairy products, green peas, beans, mushrooms, in the production of butter, condensed milk, and confectionery.
Other nisin applications:
- added during the ripening process;
- in medicine as an antibiotic;
- when transporting dairy products;
- by production of a cover for cheese and sausages.
E234 additive is approved for use in the food industry in Russia, Ukraine and many other countries.