The blood moves through the vessels of the whole body, creating appropriate pressure. Many people, especially in old age, are familiar with such concepts as high and low pressure. Various disorders in the bloodstream lead to the development of diseases. This article focuses on the lungs and a disease such as pulmonary hypertension.
The concept of pulmonary hypertension
The concept of pulmonary hypertension is well studied by doctors, which allows it not only to identify, but also to treat. What it is? This is an increase in pressure due to closure, narrowing of small vessels in the lungs or a significant increase in blood flow. It is often secondary, that is, formed due to the occurrence of disorders in the lungs, the circulatory system, or other organs. However, there are missing signs of pulmonary hypertension, which makes it primary. In this case, the vessels narrow, lose their functionality and fibrosis.
Excess pressure mark 25 mm Hg. Art. indicates the occurrence of hypertension. Sometimes this effect can lead to drugs, giving a temporary effect. There is a load on the right ventricle, which causes failure.
go to top reasons
Depending on what causes the development of pulmonary hypertension, the following species are distinguished:
- Primary (idiopathic). This disease is still unexplored nature of its occurrence. It is believed that the cause is genetic heredity, which can be transmitted to a child not only from parents, but also from grandparents. There is an enlarged state of the right ventricle. It is a rapidly progressive disease that causes death;
- Secondary as a result of other diseases. This disease develops as a result of diseases of the connective tissue, heart defects, vascular blockage, HIV, etc. In rare cases, pulmonary hypertension develops against the background of other respiratory diseases;
- Chronic thromboembolic. It is characterized by a rapid progressive effect as a result of vascular occlusion. Traced respiratory failure and pressure drop;
- Mixed Causes of occurrence may be unclear, since there are several outbreaks of ignition of the disease with unclear causes.
Important factors contributing to the disease:
go to top Symptoms
According to the severity of the disease, various symptoms of pulmonary hypertension are distinguished. With a mild form, a person may feel relatively good. But with more blockage and increased pressure, there are signs of a corresponding nature:
- Shortness of breath occurs both at the slightest exertion and in a calm state;
- Heart palpitations occur on the background of respiratory failure and lack of adequate oxygen levels;
- Constricting pains;
- Fainting may occur;
- Dizziness, fatigue, fatigue;
- Fluid accumulation;
- Swelling of limbs;
- Cyanosis of the skin;
- Bloating, nausea, vomiting;
- Anorexia, even with good nutrition;
- Hoarse voice;
- Dry cough;
- Hemoptysis in the late stages;
- Heart rhythm disturbance in later stages.
Classification of hypertension depending on the observed clinical picture:
- The first class includes patients who do not lose their efficiency. Normal exercise does not cause shortness of breath, pain, dizziness, weakness.
- The second class includes patients who feel a decrease in physical activity. At rest, nothing bothers them. But when committing active actions there is a slight shortness of breath, pain, dizziness, weakness.
- The third class includes patients who feel a certain discomfort during the commission of active actions. Minor exertion leads to the corresponding symptoms: shortness of breath, dizziness, pain, weakness.
- The fourth group includes patients who experience the above symptoms not only during exercise, but also in a state of rest.
go to top Diagnostics
Diagnosis of pulmonary hypertension occurs through the following recognition procedures:
- Medical history: when the corresponding symptoms occurred, how often do they worry, with what does the patient associate their occurrence?
- Analysis of the patient’s life: his lifestyle, bad habits, professional activities, etc .;
- General inspection and audition;
- Electrocardiography to identify changes in the work of the right ventricle;
- X-ray for the purpose of examining the lungs and heart;
- Ultrasound of the heart to measure size;
- Catheterization – measurement of pulmonary pressure;
For the purpose of detailing the disease (for what reasons it arose, what influences, what pathologies are observed), the whole body is diagnosed:
- Blood test for gas composition;
- Lung capacity assessment;
- CT scan;
- Blood test;
- Abdominal ultrasound;
- The test with walking is carried out in order to determine the tolerance of physical activity.
go to top Treatment of pulmonary hypertension
How to treat pressure changes in the pulmonary arteries? Here it is necessary to consult a pulmonologist, who will treat the cause of the pathology, and then clean up the disease itself. Treatment of pulmonary hypertension takes place in several directions:
- Reduced fluid and salt intake;
- Saturation of the body with oxygen by oxygen therapy;
- Dosage of physical activity in order to avoid the onset of symptoms;
- The exclusion of intense loads;
- The exception to changing the height of the body.
- Diuretics – eliminate excess fluid in the body;
- Calcium antagonists – a change in heart rate and a decrease in vascular spasms;
- ACE inhibitors – reducing pressure, dilating blood vessels, reducing the load on the heart;
- Nitrates – reducing the load due to the expansion of the vessels of the lower extremities;
- Antiplatelet agents reduce erythrocyte adhesion;
- Anticoagulants prevent blood clots and blood clotting;
- Medicines that improve air flow through the bronchi are bronchodilators;
- Antibiotics for detecting infection in the lungs;
- Nitric oxide in the form of inhalation to expand the vessels;
- Prostaglandins – drugs that dilate the blood vessels, prevent adhesion of red blood cells, slowing the growth of connective tissue.
- Thrombendarterectomy in order to eliminate blood clots;
- Atrial septostomy to reduce pressure due to an artificial opening between the left and right atrium;
- Lung or heart and lung transplantation, which is performed only with severe hypertension and associated pathologies in other systems.
go to top Life forecast for pulmonary hypertension
The prognosis of life in patients with pulmonary hypertension depends on the timeliness of treatment and the course of the disease. The idiopathic form is severe and progressive, leading to death. Life expectancy with missing treatment is