The content of the article:
- What is sunscreen
- Composition and components
- How to choose
- Creams rating
- For dry epidermis
- For oily skin
- For normal dermis
- For face
- For kids
Sunscreen is a protective cosmetic that protects the skin from harmful radiation such as UVA and UVB. It is necessary to choose these drugs, based on the characteristics of the skin, according to the SPF factor. Sunscreen helps to avoid burns, early aging of the epidermis, as well as the development of cancer.
What is SPF sunscreen
Direct sunlight is extremely negative for human skin. Especially dangerous is a long stay under ultraviolet in the summer, when solar radiation is too strong.
Ultraviolet has three spectra – A, B, C. Type A rays are considered to be the most harmless. They are responsible for even chocolate tan. However, at the same time, A-rays have a destructive effect on connective tissue and provoke an accelerated skin aging process.
Slightly more dangerous to humans is B-radiation. The rays of this type penetrate deep into the layers of the epidermis and activate the production of melanin. The latter is the pigment responsible for the shade of the skin and hair. Its main function is to protect the dermis from ultraviolet burns. Its quantity is determined by the region of human residence and the climatic conditions surrounding it.
The most dangerous for human skin C-rays. However, they rarely fall to the surface of the Earth, due to the protective layer of ozone.
Special cosmetic creams with SPF factors are designed to protect the skin from the harmful effects of sunshine types A and B. The latter are decoded as the Sun Protection Factor. This indicator determines the effectiveness of the tool in terms of protecting the epidermis from the rays of the spectrum A and B.
SPF can range from 2 to 50 units, where 2 is the weakest level of skin protection. Approximately 50% of ultraviolet rays delay such a cream.
The most popular sunscreen with an index in the range of 20-30. They are considered optimal for normal European skin type. At the same time, the figure 20, for example, says that your epidermis will be able to receive 20 times more solar radiation without damage than without this cream.
In addition, the SPF level helps to determine the safe number of minutes that can be spent in direct sunlight. For example, if a person can earn a UV burn for fifteen minutes without protection of the cream, then thanks to a product with a protection of 10 SPF he will spend under the sun for 150 minutes, as cosmetics with a factor of 10 increase the safe time tenfold. After this time has elapsed, the product must be renewed on the skin.
The maximum degree of skin protection is guaranteed by products with an SPF index of 50 and 50+. They hold about 98% of UV light. Be careful, these numbers are the limit for sunscreen cosmetics. If the package with the goods is worth more SPF, then this is either a fake or a marketing trick of the manufacturer.
Most sunscreen cosmetics protects the skin, mainly from type B radiation. As a rule, it protects the epidermis from A-rays a little. This is justified by the fact that, by applying such a remedy, a person will not remain without sunburn, but only protect himself from burns and the appearance of pigmentation.
However, in recent years, dermatologists have insisted that sun-protection cosmetics should also protect against the A-rays of the sun, so that staying under direct ultraviolet rays does not provoke the development of the so-called "allergy to the sun’s rays." Therefore, creams protecting against this type of radiation also appeared on the market. However, this does not mean that with such tools it is impossible to tan. In this cosmetics, the ratio of the protective components of the A and B radiation is about 1: 3. Thus, you can both tan and protect your skin from the hard ultraviolet.
The composition and components of sunscreen
Today, there are two main types of sunscreen cosmetics – with chemical and physical filters. The main difference between these products is that chemicals absorb ultraviolet light, while physical substances reflect it. Creams based on physical filters are called “Sanskrin”, chemical filters are called “Sanblocks”.
As a rule, chemical sunscreen compounds absorb type B rays, but recently there have appeared means that are capable of eliminating danger and A-radiation. Physical sunscreens have a wider protective spectrum.
The main physical (mineral) filters are zinc oxide, iron oxide and titanium dioxide. These substances do not penetrate into the subcutaneous layer and begin to act immediately after the application of cosmetics. Particles of minerals refract and reflect the sun’s rays, like a mirror, not allowing them to penetrate into the deeper layers of the skin and damage it.
Zinc oxide is an inorganic compound that has a beneficial effect on the epidermis, prevents the formation of free radicals under the influence of the rays of the sun. Titanium dioxide is a chalky mineral product that has a strong reflectivity.
Physical filters are absolutely safe for humans. They do not affect the composition of the blood, hormones, do not provoke the development of allergies and dermatitis. In recent years, manufacturers began to produce creams with physical filters, the size of the protective particles which are measured in nano-units.
It is worth noting the main drawback of mineral sunscreen cosmetics – after using it, a whitish coating remains on the skin.
Sunscreen cosmetics based on chemical filters form a thin film on the skin, which allows the sun’s rays to penetrate the skin, but be converted therein into photoisomers. A special reaction occurs, and the energy of the photo isomers is released by long waves that are safe for the human epidermis.
Act chemical sunscreen cosmetics does not begin immediately after application. She needs a certain time (usually about half an hour) in order to begin to transform the sun’s rays.
The role of chemical filters is performed by such substances as cinnamath, octopylene, mexoryl, avobenzone, oxybenzone, benzophenone, parsol, camphor products, and others.
Chemical sunscreens are the subject of controversy between dermatologists and scientists. It has been repeatedly proven that these substances can adversely affect human health. First of all, they can act as allergens. In addition, these elements can provoke free-radical processes in the epidermis or disintegrate under the influence of sunlight.
There is evidence that chemical filters are absorbed by the skin and enter the bloodstream, affecting the endocrine system and hormones. For example, it has been proven that benzophenone can provoke female and male infertility. The most toxic effect has a filter such as oxybenzone. The average level of danger at oktinksata and homosalata. Low toxicity is observed in avobenzon.
Also in the composition of sunscreen cosmetics include antioxidants, for example, vitamins A, C, E, resveratol. They are not filters, but they help to “catch” free radicals. In addition, minerals such as calcium, zinc, and various vegetable oils such as coconut, almond, avocado, olives, and wheat germ can be included. All these components help to care for the skin, nourish it and promote regeneration. Thus, a beautiful and even tan is formed.
How to choose a sunscreen
To choose a suitable sunscreen cosmetics, you need to consider several factors at once. It is fundamentally wrong to assume that the higher the SPF, the more secure your skin is. First, creams with a high protection factor are more likely to cause allergic reactions. Secondly, they are not suitable for frequent use, since under their influence the dermis will receive less of the ultraviolet radiation it needs and suffer from a lack of vitamin D.
Consider the main criteria for choosing a suitable sunscreen:
- Determine the appropriate SPF. You should choose it based on your own phototype and latitude in which you plan to sunbathe. The best index for Europeans is index 30. It protects the dermis and allows you to get an even tan. Factors 50+ should be used to protect the skin after peeling, burns, allergic reactions. Also, this cream can be used by people who quickly appear pigmentation.
We study the composition of the cream for the presence of caring substances. Direct sunlight is a skin test. Therefore, it is important to select sunscreen preparations that not only protect the dermis, but also nourish it. Optimally, if the cream against sunburn will include panthenol, vegetable oil, extracts and soothing ingredients.
We choose sunscreen products only proven manufacturers. Many dubious companies that produce sunburn creams, sin because they overestimate the UV protection factor on the packaging. You need to buy goods from well-known brands that tightly control compliance with the declared SPF real level.
Check the tool for allergens. If you are allergic, you should definitely examine the composition for the presence of substances that can cause you a negative reaction. Someone allergies provoke mineral compounds that are part of the Sanskrins, and someone has skin that is sensitive to the composition of the sanblok.
A good sunscreen should be water resistant. This is the most convenient option for a beach holiday. Of course, this does not mean that after bathing it will not have to be renewed, but in water it will also protect the skin from sun radiation for a while.
Sunscreen cosmetics come in a variety of forms. This must be considered when choosing a product for different skin types and appearance. In addition to the traditional form of the cream, there are also lotions, milk, emulsions, oils, dry powder.
What sunscreen to choose for dry epidermis
Dry and sensitive skin suffers more than other types of epidermis under the scorching rays of the sun. The composition of sunscreen cosmetics for such a dermis should include moisturizing ingredients, for example, glycerin, aloe vera extract and others.
Drugs with an alcohol content should be avoided. These are usually different gels and sprays. It is optimal if the composition contains plant extracts and extracts, oils. True, consider their allergenicity.
For dry skin, oil and a tanning milk are best suited. As for vegetable oils, coconut, almond, avocado, carite, peach bones, sesame, and wheat germ do a good job with sun protection. Enhance the tan at the same time, preventing the formation of burns, will be orange oil, turmeric. You can also mix oils for dry skin – avocado, sesame, wheat germ, lavender.
Well proven such sunscreens for dry and sensitive skin:
- Avene Mineral Cream SPF50. It has a high level of protection from ultraviolet radiation, and includes mirrored minerals. The drug levels the skin, nourishes it. It has good moisture resistance.
Clarins Creme Solaire Confort SPF20. It has a dense texture that easily and gently rests on the skin, it is quickly absorbed. After use, forms on the epidermis a light oily film that prevents dry skin from drying out under the action of sunlight.
La Roche-Posay Anthelios XL SPF50. The drug, which is developed by pharmacists and is sold mainly in pharmacies. It dries quickly, has a non-greasy texture and is suitable for sensitive skin that is prone to rashes and allergies.
Nivea Sun Care SPF50. A lotion that reliably protects dry skin from type A and B rays. It is quickly absorbed by the epidermis and softens it, leaving no sticky layer.
What sunscreen to choose for oily skin
The sun’s rays provoke the sebaceous glands of the skin to work more actively. Therefore, the stay in the sun of owners of oily and problem skin can adversely affect the condition of their epidermis. The task of sunscreen cosmetics for the oily dermis is also to regulate sebum production.
Do not choose products with mineral oils in the composition. Optimal for such epidermis preparations with light chemical filters. Sprays and emulsions are well suited. They are applied easily, quickly absorbed and do not leave shine. Also, cosmetics of this type are not clogged in the pores and often include matting agents.
If you do not know which sunscreen is best for the fat type epidermis, consider the following recommendations:
- Vichy Ideal Soleil. This light spray veil is easy to apply. It does not leave marks on the skin and clothing and does not contain parabens and alcohol. It perfectly protects the epidermis from type A and B rays, is hypoallergenic and waterproof.
Vichy Capital Soleil SPF 50. This is a fluid cream with a light texture. It not only reliably protects the epidermis from the sun, but also mattifies the skin, does not leave an oily sheen. The composition includes alcohol, which slightly dries the problem skin.
Obagi Medical Sun Shield. Matting sunscreen from the line of professional cosmetics. It has a high protection factor – 50. Suitable for oily, light skin.
The best sunscreen for normal dermis
Most normal sunscreens, lotions, and oils available on the market are suitable for normal skin. Starting sunbathing, choose cosmetics with a large SPF index. And when your skin gets a chocolate shade, the sun protection factor can be reduced.
Normal skin takes well both physical and chemical filters. Choose the one that suits you best for the price.
Good recommendations for such products:
- Matis Reponse Soleil SPF20. Soft cream with the function of protection from solar radiation, as well as refreshing and moisturizing.
Vichy Capital Soleil Velvety Cream Complexion Refining Action SPF50. Relatively inexpensive, but high-quality sunscreen drug for any type of epidermis. Suitable for both young and mature skin.
Sun Energy Panthenol Green. A soft cream suitable for sun-blended skin. It soothes the epidermis, moisturizes it and prevents it from drying out under the sun.
Oriflame Sun Zone. Inexpensive universal product from the category of mass cosmetics. Well protects the skin, does not dry and nourishes.
Best sunscreen for face
If you do not have pronounced problems with the skin of the face, it is allowed to use one sunscreen for both the body and the face. However, if you have too sensitive, oily, dry or pigmented skin on it, it is recommended to buy a special sunscreen for the face.
It is desirable that cosmetics from sun exposure was the same brand for the body and face. Consider the list of drugs that have received good reviews:
- Alba Botanica Very Emollient Mineral Sunscreen SPF30. This is a silky textured lotion. The composition includes plant extracts and extracts – aloe, shea. It is well applied and absorbed without leaving a mark on the skin.
Badger Company Tangerine and Vanilla Sunscreen SPF30. Well suited for sensitive skin, contains vegetable components and minerals that reflect the rays of the sun. It has a wonderful citrus-vanilla aroma.
MD Solar Sciences Mineral Creme Broad Spectrum Sunscreen SPF 50. Ideal for the skin of the face, as it absorbs quickly and leaves no residue. Does not contain oil, only reflective minerals, antioxidants and vitamins.
Sunscreen for children
Sunscreens for children allocate a separate group of cosmetics. The baby must have its own drug to protect from sunlight. It is strongly recommended to choose for the child sunscreen with physical filters – minerals.
All creams for babies are designed for use from six months. Until this age, it is necessary to protect the child from the direct rays of the sun with clothing or a specially created shade.
Sunscreen cosmetics with an SPF of 30 units are optimal for children. However, you should not stop the choice on a tool with a factor of 50+. Remember, the stronger the protective properties, the more aggressive substances are in the composition of such a cream. Also, do not choose aerosols and sprays for babies, they can get from the lungs when spraying. It is better to use cream or milk.
Consider the rating of popular sunscreens for children:
- Alphanova Bebe. This is a natural cosmetics for kids, which is 99% composed of natural ingredients and minerals. Safe and hypoallergenic.
Babo Botanicals Clear Zinc Sunscreen SPF30. Organic product without fragrances and with a high content of zinc. It has an optimal price-quality ratio according to various surveys and consumer ratings.
BabyLine Baby Sun Protection Cream. The sunscreen index of the cream is 35 units. Well softens and moisturizes baby skin. Does not contain preservatives, perfumes and dyes.
How to choose a sunscreen – see the video: