Forms of release
Zofran is an original brand drug from the British pharmaceutical concern GlaxoSmithKline (currently produced by its subsidiaries in Canada, Germany, France, Poland and Russia), which is based on the pharmacologically active substance Ondansetron, which has a pronounced anti-emetic effect. Such negative physiological phenomena as nausea and vomiting, are frequent companions of cytotoxic therapy. They arise as a result of the massive release of serotonin under the influence of the influence of antitumor agents on the mucous membrane of the small intestine (this, as is known, is the main “repository” of serotonin). Secreted serotonin activates specific 5-HT3 receptors located in the so-called trigger zone of the central nervous system, from which the transmission of nerve impulses to the emetic center of the medulla oblongata occurs. So, briefly, describes the mechanism for the development of nausea and vomiting. There is also a peripheral way of potentiation of the gag reflex – by acting on the receptors of the vagus nerve. The creation of the drug zofran, which is an antagonist of 5-HT3 receptors, produced, if not a sensation, then a very loud resonance: after all, a new way of preventing and stopping nausea and vomiting, which is a side effect of chemotherapy, appeared. Zofran is by far the most researched and widely used drug in its pharmacological group.
Clinical trials that confirmed the high efficacy and favorable safety profile of zofran were first conducted in the 90s of the last century. At the same time, this drug was first used in antiemetic monotherapy.
However, it was further established that the combination of glucocorticosteroids with 5-HT3 receptor antagonists enhances the antiemetic effect of the latter. In this case, as studies show, an increase in antiemetic efficacy occurs against the background of using any doses of zofran.
Zofran is available in five dosage forms: coated tablets; lozenges, syrup, injection solution and rectal suppositories. Such a wide arsenal of dosage forms gives doctors the opportunity to use, depending on the situation, the advantages of each of them. For example, lozenges are absorbed in the oral cavity in literally seconds, which predetermines the soonest occurrence of the pharmacological effect. This dosage form can be used in patients who have difficulty swallowing. Another non-injection form of zofran that is of particular interest is suppositories. The peak of the concentration in the blood of the active substance when it is used is noted after 3.5 hours and subsequently remains at a predetermined level for quite a long time, which makes it possible to resort to zofran 1 time per day in order to prevent nausea and vomiting delayed in time. In contrast to other representatives of the glorious tribe of 5-HT3 receptor antagonists, zofran is the only drug recommended for use in the prevention of nausea and vomiting after surgical interventions with a low risk of their development. Before surgery, the drug can be prescribed in any dosage form, and in the postoperative period to prevent vomiting recurrence, the optimal lekforma is injection.