It is believed that the cultivation of pigs is not difficult, since these animals are omnivorous. The truth in this, of course, is present. Since the process of feeding the pigs is simplified thanks to a variety of feeding, which is easy to combine, combining home feeding and industrial feed. This “mix” may include: raw vegetables, cereals and cereals, animal products, meat and fish waste and other food waste.
Is it possible not to follow the proven practice of nutritional technology and still get tasty and nutritious meat and lard? Unlikely. It is rash to think that these unpretentious animals grow by themselves and therefore it is enough to give the pigs food waste with the addition of vegetables from the vegetable garden. Knowledge of feed, diet and animal nutritional standards will help eliminate the risk of pain and lack of growth and weight. Pigs should receive the necessary amount of vitamins, minerals and trace elements in a timely manner. This can only be achieved if the diet is balanced and varied.
Types of feed classification
Since the pig has a single-chamber stomach, it is important that the basis of the ration be soft concentrated food, rather than coarse and juicy food, with a high content of fiber.
All feed, depending on their impact on the quality of meat and fat, are divided into three classes (groups).
The influence of the group of feed on the quality of meat and fat:
2 months before slaughtering, the third group of feed is completely excluded, the percentage ratio of feed of the first group increases.
Types of feed and feeding standards of pigs
An alternative to feeding pigs with food waste may be dry feeding. Dry feeding includes a mixed menu of mixed fodder, grain “crushed”, bran, hay shavings, oil cake and dry additives. Greens, vegetables and dairy products are not present in this type of feeding, however, the pigs feel great, which has a positive effect on the productivity indicators.
Owners either buy dry industrial feed, or make them themselves. As an additive used premixes and vitamins. The amount of additives depends on the breed of animals, age, structural features, individual preferences, etc.
Dry feeding is more common, since the pig’s digestive tract is less stressed due to the lack of a continuous fermentation process.
For the prevention of the health of the animal need bioform. The inclusion of dietary supplements in the menu covers the body’s need for vitamins, minerals and trace elements. They improve well-being, maintain the functionality of all organs and tissues.
An important component in the nutrition of pigs is juicy greens, which can be used in the form of herbal granules or eat fresh grass on the run. Animals love to help themselves to the tops of vegetables from the garden. These are the tops of carrots, and beets, and zucchini, weeds and
In addition to vitamins, vegetables and fruits are added to the dry premix additives. Pigs are happy to eat washed and ground treats: beets, cabbage, apples, carrots, etc. Potatoes are pre-boiled before serving.
Protein and mineral supplements
Supplements improve the growth of piglets, support the development of young and adult individuals. Protein supplements go to pigs for food: milk, milk yield, yogurt, animal waste and
Mineral supplements (Fe, K, Cl, etc.), mixed into food or poured separately (for example, coal and ash), pigs are obtained with tuff, chalk, eggshell. Novice farmers adjust the daily menu using the table “Consumption of a mixture of bone meal, salt and chalk”, which contains detailed instructions for the ratio of consumption rates to the age of the animal, its sex and even the season.
The high content of proteins and vitamins, which are absorbed almost completely in the body, make this supplement especially valuable. The efficiency of productivity grows many times. Feed yeast is available in powder or pellet form. Their use does not entail undesirable consequences: products from animals after use are safe for humans.
Amino acids, vitamins, hormones and trace elements that make up the yeast, promote growth, improve the appetite and health of pigs.
Tips for newbies:
- subject to yeast at least 30% of the feed from the daily menu. For example, from 2 kg. 600 g of feed mixture should be mixed with yeast.
- Baking yeast or brewer’s yeast can act as an analogue of fodder yeast.
Types of feeding
Currently, there are three methods of feeding pigs: dry, liquid and wet feeding (intermediate type). In large farms, the dry way of feeding is more popular. At home, they use all 3 methods, but more often they resort to the second one, so in a household farm it is easier to diversify the composition of food with food waste, mash, chowder with dairy products, grass, and
Dry type of feeding does not require much time: premix is added to the feed, and the drinking bowl must be provided with water. It is possible to prepare feed in advance by mixing it with the premix (at the rate of 10 g per 1 kg of finished feed). Extruded feeds are rich in vitamins and minerals and have several advantages:
- manufactured in production and ready for use;
- promote rapid weight gain of pigs;
- do not involve problems in digestion;
- no ammonia odor in manure;
- the feed does not sour and does not deteriorate.
With a dry type of feeding, the piglets get a balanced diet and therefore grow quickly.
Liquid nutrition is prepared by hand. There are sour milk and milk in the feed, food debris from the kitchen. Do not give waste with the content of household chemicals.
At home growing conditions applied intermediate wet feeding. Mixes of boiled potato with grass, chopped vegetables, food waste, oil cake and
Most of the feed before use needs to be prepared or processed. These measures are necessary in order to increase the nutritional value, improve the digestibility of food or for the purpose of disinfection. The preparation process depends on the method of implementation and is divided into methods: mechanical, physical, chemical and biological.
The most common and affordable vegetable is potato. In its raw form, it is poorly digested in the pig stomach, so it is washed, boiled, and then crushed. The water in which the potatoes are boiled cannot be added to food due to the content of the poisonous substance – solanine. As a rule, potatoes are mixed with crushed dry or steamed grains, adding green food.
Potatoes for pigs
Carrots, beets, pumpkins and other melons are usually served in a raw, ground form. Do not rub and chop vegetables for future use – they can sour or rot. If carrots, beets or pumpkins are pre-boiled, they can be added with the water in which they are boiled.
Hay preparation and rot
Rough feed (hay and its dust) should be steamed for several hours to improve the digestion process. Pigs do not eat long stalks, so they should be minced as much as possible before feeding.
Special attention is required prior preparation of cereals. In general, the form of cereal is not effective to feed – the grain is not digested and goes into the manure, passing in transit through the pig’s stomach.
The best processing of cereals is grinding. The finer grinding the better. It is necessary to grind corn and oats as needed because of the fat contained in the grains – it is able to oxidize quickly and bitten, therefore it should not be reserved for the future.
In feeding, peas and lentils play an important role, but they must first be boiled for maximum absorption.
Useful qualities of grain increase, if it germinate. This process is quite simple. Low crates filled with grain are placed so that they get sunlight. Within 9-10 days, the grain is watered. The grain will be ready for use as soon as the sprouts are stretched upwards by 8-10 cm. This method is often used for feeding small piglets and sows.
On a note! By eating cereal suckling piglets, they are taught to feed grains, roasted to a dark chocolate shade – this contributes to the growth of teeth in small piglets.
Preparation of fresh green fodder
Green supplements also need attention when preparing for feed. Rough and dried stalks are removed from the grass, leaving leaves with sprigs, then finely chopped. Preparation for the future is not recommended, so it will wither or rot.
Preparing greens for pigs
Preparation of combined silo
Useful properties of a silo are improved if it is combined before serving. Pigs with pleasure feed on mixed fodder from crushed juicy root crops, vegetables and green mass. It can be sugar and hemispheric beets, carrots, cabbage, as well as lupine, green biomass of legumes and corn. This method of storing feed is an excellent bio-preservation.
Important points when preparing a good kombisilos:
- All vegetables and herbs have a certain period for ensiling. For example, the ensiling of peas and lupine is better to produce before flowering; the best time for corn is the milky-wax ripeness phase; vegetables – in the period when they are fully ripe.
- The finished and crushed silage is heavily rammed into a trench or into a tank to force air out. The trench should be lined, in the case of laying the silo in the tank using plastic packaging. Harvesting of combisillosis is a great opportunity to preserve perishable food by a biological method.
- It is impossible to silage tops, as well as nettles.
- It is impossible to feed frozen and mildew-fed animals to animals – this can harm their health.
Popular Silo Combination Recipes:
Yeast feed from the total mass of the concentrate takes 1/3 part. This method improves appetite, helps the assimilation of other feed, affects the growth of animal mass.
Yeast by baker’s yeast is performed by two methods: straight and sponge (yeast).
Bezoparny method: Pour warm water (no more than 40 degrees) in a capacity of 20 liters; add 100 grams of diluted yeast; pour 10 kilograms of dry small food into the resulting solution, stirring slowly; leave for 8 hours of fermentation, while stirring the liquid mass every 20-25 minutes.
Ferment method (the only difference is in cooking dough): let’s make a starter: 5 liters of warm water (40 degrees) are added to a 20 liter pot, in which 100 grams of yeast are stirred; add 2 kg. compound feeds; Stir and brew. After 5-6 hours, add 15 liters of warm water and 7-9 kilograms of dry concentrate again. Wait another 2 hours and the brew can be fed for feeding.
Be sure to check the quality of the feed:
- if mold appears in the mixture or parasites start, it must be destroyed;
- Not all herbs can be given to food for pigs, so among them there are poisonous and harmful plants: euphorbia, black nightshade, cycuta, dog parsley, edible buttercup, horse dill, pikulnik and others. In order to prevent poisoning of livestock, you need to carefully consider the choice of grass;
- The cotton cake and cotton castor oil are pretreated with heat treatment or alkali to neutralize the toxic substance – gossypol alkaloid;
- sprouts on potatoes and green tubers are also dangerous for the digestive system, like water after boiling potatoes;
- boiled beets can not be left for a long time in hot water – it provokes poisoning.
Sprouts on potatoes are dangerous for digestion
How to feed: diet and norms
It is important to adhere to certain rules and conditions, the observance of which guarantees the good health of pigs and effective productivity.
Rules to help escape from digestion problems:
- observe the feed mode, regularly clean and wash the feeder;
- combine and balance the diet with various additives;
- serve only clean food, excluding mold and parasites, rotten and spoiled food;
- grind all food without exception;
- in conditions of free grazing, do not allow foreign objects to fall into the ground, because pigs like to tear off the ground and pick up everything from it.
Factors affecting the daily intake of pig feed:
- period of the year;
- age of the animal;
- gender of the animal;
- the state of health of the pig.
The daily rate of feeding pigs can be affected by various factors – whether it is weather, climate, or the biological characteristics of the animal. For example, in the cold season additional energy is needed for warming, because in winter the standard of feed increases per day, and in the summer months – on the contrary, decreases. For sows (lactating, pregnant) increase the daily rate and nutritional value of feed.
Proper feeding should be carried out throughout the life cycle of the pig. And the beginning of the feeding process comes from birth. At first, piglets feed on mother’s milk, but from the fifth day of life, pig breeders recommend starting feeding.
Mother’s milk for any mammal is the key to good health and good development of the body in all subsequent years. Milk strengthens the immune system, providing all the necessary substances and vitamins pig suckling from the first day of life. The first two weeks is the only feed for piglets.
Milk for suckers is very useful.
After 2 weeks in piglets, the need for an increase in nutrients increases, in sows at this point lactation decreases.
Farmers with experience recommend starting to teach piglets to solid feed from the fifth day of life. In order for the pigs to grow and strengthen their teeth, they are given, as complementary foods, wheat, maize or barley grains roasted to a dark chocolate shade. To begin with, little by little, the grains are scattered directly on the dry floor, and later – they are poured into small troughs.
To ensure that the food in piglets is well digested and digested in the diet, acidophilic sour milk is added, thereby increasing the fermentation of the stomach.
After another couple of days, the menu is diluted slightly with premixes with bone meal and chalk.
Early adding succulent feed is not recommended. After the 10th day of life, babies are given a chance to try grated carrots. Later – add grated pumpkin and beets, combined silage.
The potatoes, boiled and crushed, give 20-day-old piglets.
On the 45th day, the grown-up piglets are weaned from the sow and transferred to a wet or dry method of feeding. In this very period, sows reduce the daily rate of succulent feed, replacing them with dry, to reduce the amount of milk in sows.
At the 50th day of life, the piglets go on 3 meals a day, they are transferred to another room, separated from sows.
At this stage there is an increased growth of the skeleton of animals, therefore, a large amount of animal protein is included in the diet: this is bone and fish meal, yogurt, low-fat milk.
Recommendations for percent feed balancing:
- concentrate – 80%;
- vegetables and root vegetables – 10%;
- bean flour – 5%;
- fish, bone or meat and bone meal – 5%.
Pigs in rearing
Changing the menu of young animals occurs when they reach a weight of 20-25 kilograms. From this point on, they are classified as gilts. For the active growth of the body requires more and more vitamins and minerals – the concentrate is mixed with green mass, juicy roots and vegetables.
Grass is added to the diet
Grass is also added to the diet. A part of which is served fresh, the other is pre-steamed in boiling water. After a few hours, pounded boiled potatoes and dry food are added to the steamed grass. The consistency of this mixture should be similar to slush.
As soon as the pigs reach a weight of 40-50 kg, then from the category of “gilt” they move into the category of “adult pigs”. At this moment, pigs are fattened according to a special menu, choosing at their discretion either a diet to improve the quality and volume of meat, or – to increase the amount of fat.
The rate of average daily weight gain in a given period of time is considered to be 650 grams. At the age of six months the weight of pigs reaches 100-120 kg. The standard cost of 1 kilogram of weight should not exceed 4 feed. units
In order to increase the efficiency of the result in everyday weight gain up to 850 g, the most nutritious dry food with the lowest fiber content is introduced into the diet.
When feeding boars, an important difference is control over their condition. From the fact that male pigs can be depleted or, conversely, ozhireyut, directly affects their sexual activity and performance.
During sexual activity, boars require an increase in the rate of nutritious feed due to accelerated metabolism.
If males are on overexposure (restrictions on mating), then the standard of feeding is reduced by 10-20%, given their actual weight.
Depending on the age, males are offered different volumes of dry food. Proportions should be made on the basis of one centner of live weight: 1.6 kg for growing, 1.4 kg for adults. The basis of the menu is cereal, cake, meal, meat and fish production waste, peas.
The menu of sows can vary depending not only on their weight and age, but also on their current state:
- whether they are inseminated (idle);
- pregnant women (pregnant);
- whether they feed piglets (lactating).
During pregnancy, sows in the first 84 days do not need an increased need for energy feeds. A month before pregnancy, the amount of energy feed increases by 20%.
More nutritious foods are offered to young guinea pigs under the age of 2 years.
Pregnant uterus is under special control – the weight of the pig should be of average nutrition. Neither weight reduction nor excess is allowed.
At the time of sowing lactation, the amount of nutrients in the diet increases significantly. The amount of feed should be sufficient so that lactation does not decrease and this does not lead to starvation of the pigs.
The sowed sow does not feed for the first hours, but only allows it to drink clean water. After 5 hours after farrowing, she is given about 0.7 kilograms of liquid concentrate. In the subsequent feeding standard is increased to 1 kilogram. Throughout the week, each feeding standard gradually comes to a normal portion. Violation of this rule is fraught with the fact that a lot of milk will remain in the body and lead to sow disease.
In drawing up the menu for pigs it is important to consider the recommendations of experienced pig producers, observing all the rules. Ignoring important tips, beginners risk incurring unnecessary costs, and animals will develop incorrectly and unevenly, which will adversely affect the quality characteristics of products. Observing the norms and rations of food pigs, farmers will be able to provide the consumer’s table with healthy and tasty meat and fat products.