Inflammation of the cervix – a known gynecological problem. Most often, cervicitis is detected in women of childbearing age, but sometimes such a diagnosis is made the day before and even during menopause. The complexity of the disease is that it contributes to the emergence of various pathologies of the reproductive sphere, and during pregnancy threatens to interrupt or prenatal infection of the child.
Read in this article.
Causes of acute cervicitis
In the body of a healthy woman, the cervix enters the role of a filter that protects the genitals from invading pathogenic microorganisms. The mucosa of its channel contains special bactericidal enzymes that can neutralize most disease-causing agents. A narrow channel prevents mechanical penetration.
However, with adverse factors, the function of the vaginal part of the cervix and cervical canal is impaired. This part of the organ remains defenseless against the infection and takes the first blow. Its tissues are affected by an acute inflammatory process – cervicitis, which can last up to one and a half months, and then become chronic.
Depending on which part of the organ suffers – internal or external, the disease is divided into endocervicitis and exocervicitis, respectively.
The reasons that cause such a disease in the female body can be of a different nature. Most often, doctors distinguish the following situations.
The most common provocateurs of cervicitis are pathogens, for the life of which the cervix is a favorable environment. They can get to this area in the following ways:
- with unprotected sex;
- through blood;
- by contact, for example, from the intestines when non-compliance with the rules of intimate hygiene.
When treating cervicitis, gynecologists have to contend with:
- E. coli;
- viral microorganisms (herpes, HPV, CMV and others);
- fungi (candida and the like).
Often, cervicitis is a secondary disease, that is, it occurs as a consequence of the inflammatory process in adjacent structures, as well as in other parts of the genital organs (for example, colpitis, adnexitis).
Another cause of inflammation in the cervical region is trauma. A hastily supplied contraceptive (cap or ring) or excessively deep introduction of a hygienic tampon can damage the delicate mucous membrane and make it vulnerable to any bacteria. The same can be observed after the installation of the intrauterine device and after injuries during labor.
Mechanical damage can be obtained after abortion. Even if the negative effects of the procedure for the reproductive function and psychological state are omitted, the technique of its implementation itself remains very traumatic. Therefore, even in sterile conditions, the body is not protected from complications, among which cervicitis is often found.
Damage to the mucous membrane of the vaginal part of the cervix is possible when douching with potent solutions. Concentrated liquids can not only leave a burn, but also “wash” all the useful microflora, which protects against infections.
An additional risk to get cervicitis is in girls who have begun to lead an active sex life before reaching adulthood. The fact is that the microflora of young representatives of the fair sex is not yet able to adequately respond to the changes.
Therefore, any intervention quickly leads to an imbalance and disrupt the process of maturation. This makes the genitals accessible for infections that are more intense than in older women.
Vulnerable to cervicitis and women remain during menopause. Due to the reduction in estrogen production, the entire reproductive system suffers. The mucous membranes of the reproductive organs become more vulnerable, the epithelium becomes thinner, so the defenses weaken.
Symptoms of the disease
The insidiousness of cervicitis is that in itself it proceeds without noticeable symptoms. Assuming that something is going wrong, a woman can, due to an “unusual” lack of orgasm, pain during intimacy and bleeding after it, not related to menstruation. However, this situation is rare.
In general, cervicitis becomes a companion of another disease that is provoked by the same pathogen. That is, it is not inflammation of the cervix or its canal that manifests itself, but another pathology, such as coleitis or adnexitis.
Complaints are various and can be as follows:
- soreness in the lower abdomen, may give to the lower back;
- pain when urinating;
- “unreasonable” desires to the toilet are frequent;
- unpleasant odor of intimate parts of the body;
- unusual discharge (yellow, turbid, cheesy, frothy, and so on);
- irritation or itching in the genital area.
Symptoms of vaginitis and cervicitis caused by different microbes
If during the acute period of cervicitis treatment is not started, it becomes chronic. At this stage, the disease affects the internal tissues of the organ, changing their structure. Endometritis, adnexitis and other forms of the inflammatory process. This is almost asymptomatic.
To identify the disease is possible only when viewed on a gynecological chair. Since acute cervicitis produces little of itself, it is most often found by chance. Visually, inflammation confirms the swelling of the surface of the vaginal part of the cervix, which bleeds when touched. Often there are ulcerations on it. The cervical canal can also be filled with a nodule or other biological fluid, which in a normal state should not be there.
In fact, one gynecological examination in the mirrors is enough for the doctor to diagnose cervicitis. Much more difficulty occurs when installing the causes of this disease. The exception is sexually transmitted infections that have a specific pathogen and clear symptoms.
To select the correct treatment tactics, the gynecologist prescribes special manipulations and analyzes. The most common list of diagnostic procedures is as follows:
- Colposcopy. A special apparatus like a microscope will allow a more detailed examination of the affected part of the mucous membrane and determine the scale of the problem.
During the examination, a specialist may take a small piece of inflamed tissue for further study – a biopsy is performed.
- Cytological examination. These are smears on oncocytology. The cells are taken from the cervical canal and the vaginal part of the cervix, after which they are studied under magnification. This makes it possible to assess the risk of oncological processes, the severity of inflammation.
- Bakposev. He will determine the causative agent of the disease (if it is a bacterium) and the groups of drugs with which it can be eliminated.
- PCR test (polymerase chain reaction). It allows you to identify viruses and pathogens of sexually transmitted infections.
- Smear on the flora. With it, the doctor will get an idea of the composition of the vaginal microflora.
Treatment of acute cervicitis
After receiving the results of all tests, the doctor determines the necessary therapy. In a situation when the infection became the cause of cervicitis, the main efforts are focused on sanitizing the cervix and its canal to prevent the inflammatory process from spreading to other genital organs, and if a woman is “in position” to her baby. Depending on the pathogen, will have to be treated:
- antibiotics (mainly Erythromycin or Ceftriaxone is prescribed for pregnant women);
- antiviral agents containing acyclovir or other substances;
- fungal suppressants (in the form of suppositories or vaginal tablets).
Vaginal suppositories for cervicitis treatment
In addition, in addition, you need to adjust the composition of the microflora to prevent the re-onset of cervicitis. To do this, the doctor prescribes drugs or dietary supplements containing the necessary strains of lactobacilli.
The treatment of cervicitis in women during menopause involves the use of hormonal agents. Regardless of the form (candles, pills or cream) they should be used regularly and in accordance with the scheme determined by the gynecologist.
After all medications have been taken, you need to visit the gynecologist again and pass the control tests. If conservative methods of dealing with acute cervicitis prove ineffective, the inflamed cervical tissue will have to be removed. For this, cryotherapy, electrocoagulation or cauterization with a laser is prescribed.
However, such manipulations (even with the use of modern devices) are considered quite traumatic. They are resorted to under strict indications, especially if the patient plans to have children.
Radiowave treatment of cervicitis apparatus Surgitron
At the same time with a woman to sanitize their genitals and need a sexual partner. This is important because the pathogen can circulate from one organism to another, not allowing drugs to perform their function qualitatively. In general, at the time of treatment is better to abandon sexual relations.
If not treated
Any genital disease should not be ignored. A frivolous attitude to acute cervicitis can lead to a change in the cervix and the appearance of erosions on it. This will be a serious obstacle if a woman wants to become a mother, or even deprive her of such an opportunity.
This condition is especially dangerous if the lady is already “in position.” Cervicitis opens access to an infection to a child, even in a situation when the disease is caused by another reason. Without treatment, the result can be very tragic.
On the diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the cervix, see this video:
The main way to protect against cervicitis is the care of every woman about her health. Since often the cause of this disease is infection, it is important to avoid the factors that lead to its acquisition. Ideally, even before the beginning of intimate relationships, a man and a woman should check whether they are carriers of a disease that can be transmitted to a partner.
But such consciousness is not so common. Therefore, in order to protect yourself from cervicitis and other problems, it is important:
- do not have casual sex;
- insist on the proper use of a condom (before intercourse);
- strengthen the immune system;
- completely complete the treatment of all diseases (especially infectious);
- monitor intimate hygiene;
- regularly visit a gynecologist.
And here more about the diagnosis and treatment of acute vaginitis.
In whatever situation of life a woman faces a cervicitis, it is important to understand that successful elimination of this disease is possible only under the supervision of a physician. With strict compliance with its recommendations, the outlook is positive in most cases. But from the use of folk methods for the treatment of inflammation of the cervix is better to refuse, they will not have a therapeutic effect in the right degree or, worse, aggravate the disease.
For the prevention and treatment options for gynecological diseases, see this video: