The concepts of gender and gender are often confused, and yet there is a significant, if not obvious, difference between them. Let’s try to determine what is a gender trait and what is its difference from gender. It can be said that the biological sex, male and female, is the innate quality of an individual, which is revealed at the stage of embryonic development; that the sex is unchanged, and does not depend on the will of the individual. But is it all so simple? Indeed, in recent times with the help of modern medicine, you can change the floor. Yes, and the presence at birth of certain genital organs in a child does not mean that it can be uniquely placed in the category of boys or girls. Indeed, now, for example, in the examination of female athletes participating in competitions between women, not only the obvious female signs of their body are taken into account, but also the chromosome set, since it is found that, along with the female genitals, male hormones adjoin, and this gives such athletes advantage in competitions.
And yet, if the sex trait in most people is still biological and anatomical, the gender trait is unambiguously social, social, and acquired as a result of upbringing. In simpler language, this can be reformulated as follows: babies are born male and female, but men and women become. And it’s not about how a child is being brought up from the cradle – a girl or a boy: all of us are influenced by the cultural unconscious of our environment. And since gender is a cultural and social phenomenon, it can undergo changes along with the development of culture and society. For example, in the XIX century, it was believed that a woman wears a dress and long hair, and a man – pants and a short hair, but now these things are not a sign of gender. Previously, the “academic woman”, “woman politician” and “business woman” were considered something incredible, but now it is observed more and more often, and no one is surprised.
But, nevertheless, the gender attribute attributed to men and women is still tenacious in the mass consciousness, and the less developed a society is, the more it weighs on individuals, imposing certain forms of social behavior on them. So, it is believed that a man should be a “breadwinner for the family” and be sure to earn more than his wife. It is also believed that a man should be courageous, assertive, aggressive, engage in “male” professions, take a great interest in sports and fishing, make a career at work. A woman is assigned to be feminine, soft, emotional, get married, have children, be docile and compliant, engage in “female” professions, making them a rather modest career, because she must devote most of her time to her family.
These stereotypes, which, alas, still dominate in some strata and even countries, give rise to gender problems for human individuals. Wife feeding the whole family; a husband going on maternity leave to care for a newborn; a woman who sacrifices marriage for a successful academic career; a man who is fond of embroidery – they all are to some extent subject to social ostracism for their inappropriate gender behavior. Can we definitely say that gender is a social stereotype? Yes, because in different societies gender stereotypes – male and female – differ between themselves. For example, in the Spanish paradigm, being able to cook is a sign of a real macho, whereas in the Slavic stand by the stove is a purely female occupation.
It is obvious that gender stereotypes lead not only to gender problems, but also to gender discrimination, since men often play the leading role in society. Therefore, a special gender policy is being developed at the highest level by many developed countries. This means that the state assumes responsibility for eliminating gender inequality and creates a code of laws for the formation of an egalitarian (equal for all people) society. It should also pursue an educational policy that aims to eradicate gender stereotypes.