The world ocean lives by its own rules, which are harmoniously combined with the laws of the universe. For a long time, people have noticed that the water masses are actively moving, but could not understand what these fluctuations in sea level are connected with. Let’s find out what the tide is, the tide?
Tides: the mysteries of the ocean
Sailors knew that the ebb and flow is a daily phenomenon. But the nature of these changes could not be understood either by ordinary residents or by learned minds. Back in the fifth century BC, philosophers tried to describe and characterize how the World Ocean is moving. The ebb and flow seemed to be something fantastic and extraordinary. Even authoritative scientists believed the tides were the breath of the planet. This version has existed for several millennia. Only at the end of the seventeenth century the meaning of the word "tide" tied to the movement of the moon. But it was not possible to explain this process scientifically. After hundreds of years, scientists have dealt with this mystery and have given a precise definition of the daily change in water level. The science of oceanology that appeared in the twentieth century established that the tide is raising and lowering the level of the waters of the World Ocean in connection with the gravitational influence of the moon.
Are tides everywhere the same?
The influence of the moon on the Earth’s crust is unequal, therefore it cannot be said that tides are identical throughout the world. In some parts of the world, daily sea level drops to sixteen meters. And the inhabitants of the Black Sea coast almost never notice the tides, as they are the most insignificant in the world.
Typically, the change in water level occurs twice a day – in the morning and in the evening. But in the South China Sea, the tide is a movement of water masses that occurs only once in twenty-four hours. Most of the differences in sea level are visible in the straits or other narrow places. If you watch, then with the naked eye it will be noticeable how quickly the water leaves or comes. Sometimes in a few minutes it rises to five meters.
What causes ebbs and flows?
As we have already found out, the change in sea level is caused by the impact on the Earth’s crust of its constant moon satellite. But how does this process occur? To understand what the tide is, it is necessary to present in detail the interaction of all the planets in the solar system.
The moon and the Earth are constantly dependent on each other. Earth attracts its satellite, and that, in turn, tends to attract our planet. This endless rivalry allows you to maintain the desired distance between two cosmic bodies. The moon and the Earth are moving in their orbits, now moving away, now approaching each other.
At that moment, when the moon comes closer to our planet, the crust of the earth bends toward it. This causes a disturbance of water on the surface of the earth’s crust, as if it tends to rise higher. The distance of the earth satellite causes a decline in the level of the World Ocean.
Interval of tides on Earth
Since the tide is a regular occurrence, it must have its own specific range of motion. Oceanologists were able to calculate the exact time of the lunar day. This term is called the revolution of the moon around our planet, it is slightly longer than the usual for us twenty-four hours. Every day, the tides shift by fifty minutes. This time period is necessary for the wave to "catch up" The moon, moving for the Earth day at thirteen degrees.
The influence of ocean tides on rivers
We have already figured out what the tide is, but very few people know about the influence of these oceanic oscillations on our planet. Surprisingly, even the rivers are subject to the influence of ocean tides, and sometimes the result of this intervention is incredibly frightening.
During heavy tides, a wave that has reached the mouth of a river meets with a stream of fresh water. As a result of the mixing of water masses of various densities, a powerful wall is formed, which begins to move with great speed against the flow of the river. This stream is called boron, and it is able to destroy almost all living things on its way. A similar phenomenon in a few minutes washes away coastal settlements and blurs the coastline. Bor stops just as suddenly as it began.
Scientists have documented cases when a powerful boron turned the rivers back or completely stopped them. It is not difficult to imagine how catastrophic for all the inhabitants of the river these phenomenal cases of the action of tides have become.
How do tides affect marine life?
Not surprisingly, tides have a tremendous impact on all organisms that live in the depths of the ocean. The most difficult to account for small animals that live in coastal zones. They are forced to constantly adapt to changing water levels. For many of them, tides are a way to change their habitat. During high tides, small crustaceans move closer to the shore and find food for themselves, a tide wave drags them deeper into the ocean.
Oceanologists have proven that many marine life is closely associated with tidal waves. For example, in some species of whales, the metabolism slows down during low tides. In other deep-sea inhabitants, reproductive activity depends on the height of the wave and its amplitude.
Most scientists believe that the disappearance of such phenomena as fluctuations in the level of the oceans, will lead to the extinction of many living creatures. Indeed, in this case, they will lose their power source and will not be able to adjust their biological clock to a certain rhythm.
Earth’s rotation speed: is the influence of tides high?
For decades now, scientists have been studying everything related to the term "tide". This is the process that every year brings more and more puzzles. Many experts associate the speed of rotation of the Earth with the action of tidal waves. According to this theory, sea currents are formed under the influence of tides. On their way, they constantly overcome the resistance of the earth’s crust. As a result, the planet’s rotational speed slows down almost invisibly to humans.
Studying sea corals, oceanologists found that a few billion years ago, the earth’s day was twenty-two hours. In the future, the Earth’s rotation will slow down even more, and at some point it will simply be equal to the amplitude of the lunar day. In this case, as scientists predict, the ebb and flow will simply disappear.
Human vital activity and the amplitude of oscillations of the World Ocean
It is not surprising that a person is subject to tides. After all, it is 80% fluid and cannot but respond to the influence of the moon. But man would not be the crown of the creation of nature, if he had not learned to use practically all natural phenomena for his own benefit.
The energy of the tidal wave is incredibly high, so for many years various projects have been created for the construction of power plants in areas with a large amplitude of movement of water masses. There are already several such power stations in Russia. The first was built in the White Sea and was an experimental option. The power of this station did not exceed eight hundred kilowatts. Now this figure seems ridiculous, and new power plants using a tidal wave, produce energy that feeds many cities.
Scientists see it is in these projects that the future of the Russian energy industry, as tidal power plants make it possible to treat nature more carefully and cooperate with it.
Ebb and flow are natural phenomena that have not been studied at all recently. Each new discovery of oceanologists leads to even more questions in this area. But perhaps someday scientists will be able to unravel all the mysteries that the ocean tide presents to humanity every day.