Symptoms of anemia are formed on the background of a decrease in hemoglobin. The rate of this substance is controversial. Signs of anemia can be traced in some people with a hemoglobin count of 110 g / l.
In other patients, the clinical manifestations of the disease are not observed at a concentration below 90 g / l. By classical standards, an anemic condition of a severe degree is observed at hemoglobin levels below 70 g / l.
Some therapists have observed the ideal state of health in elderly patients with lower figures for this indicator. Of course, the pathological symptoms of the disease appear on this background, but they are compatible with life.
Discussions on the subject of laboratory norm with anemia continue, but this does not cancel the clinical manifestations of the disease that require immediate treatment.
Symptoms of anemia in the initial stages
Symptoms of anemia differ in the initial and late stages. The prelativate form of the disease is characterized by the following manifestations:
- Decreased performance;
- General fatigue;
- Increased performance;
- Noise in ears;
- Acceleration of the heart rate;
There are few complaints in people at the early (latent) stage of the disease. Most often 2-3 of the above described markers of the anemic state prevail.
Classic signs of anemia with severe
Signs of anemia depend on the biochemical changes in the body. In case of pathology, it is not only red blood cells that suffer. The destruction of the depot of iron – ferritin is observed, the level of the transport protein – transferrin is increased, the destruction of myoglobin occurs. These processes affect the manifestations of the disease.
What are the signs of iron deficiency anemia in severe cases:
- Tachycardia – increased heart rate;
- Pale skin;
- Dizziness and headache;
- Dry tongue and puffiness;
- The perversion of taste (use of chalk and lime).
Symptoms of anemia vary according to the type of illness. There are several options:
- Iron deficiency;
- Sickle Cell;
Consider how to recognize the manifestations of anemia in adults and children on the pathological forms.
Signs of aplastic anemia when observed
Symptoms of aplastic anemia occur on the background of a violation of the formation of red blood cells by the bone marrow. Specific manifestations of the disease:
- Constant fatigue;
- Dizziness and general weakness;
- Rapid weight loss and loss of appetite;
- Bleeding from the nose and intestines;
- Education ulcers of the oral cavity.
Aplastic anemia is rarely observed, so its clinical symptoms are detected late. Only on the basis of laboratory tests revealed specific changes in the blood. Disorders of bone marrow erythrogenesis are studied after growth research by taking a biopsy from the bones.
Signs of hemolytic anemia, how to recognize
Signs of hemolytic anemia can be recognized by a specific increase in the size of the liver and spleen (hepatosplenomegaly). They are clearly visible when performing ultrasound.
At the latent stage of the disease, hemolysis (destruction of red blood cells) is difficult to determine. A slight breakdown of red cells is compensated by increasing erythrogenesis in the bone marrow.
There are 2 types of hemolysis:
Intracellular destruction of red blood cells is carried out by the spleen, bone marrow and liver. The process is necessary to obtain iron from dead red cells for the reverse utilization of iron.
Intravascular form of the disease is carried out directly in the bloodstream. This type of disease is characterized by the following signs of anemia:
- Dark urine;
- Enlarged spleen and liver;
- Weakness and dizziness.
Of all the types of disease, the specific symptoms of the anemic state of the hemolytic type are hepatosplenomegaly.
Signs of anemia in women with vitamin B12 deficiency
Signs of anemia with vitamin B12 deficiency in women are more pronounced than in men. Violation of the metabolism of this substance has acquired and innate nature. Pathology develops slowly, therefore, in the representatives of the strong half, it proceeds without symptoms. In women, on the background of menstruation, signs of the disease increase.
Genetic predisposition leads to the following symptoms of B12 deficiency anemia in childhood:
- Abdominal pain with lesions of the gastrointestinal tract;
- Headaches, memory impairment and other neurological diseases;
- Impaired bone marrow erythrogenesis.
Signs of anemia in women are “veiled” by the menstrual cycle. Representatives of the fair half of some manifestations of the disease “write off” for indisposition before the next month. Only when the manifestations of the disease become pronounced, do they realize that the symptoms are not related to the hormonal system.
What are the manifestations of anemic condition in children
Manifestations of anemia in children are most pronounced between the 3rd and 6th months. If the baby is premature, he has iron deficiency in the first months of life.
The main signs of anemia in infants:
- Dry skin;
- Cracking of the corners of the mouth, stomatitis in the mouth;
- Brilliant language;
- Immobility and fatigue;
To determine the signs of anemic condition in children, it is necessary to conduct laboratory tests and identify a decrease in the number of red blood cells, low hemoglobin levels.
Hypochromic anemia – the main symptoms of adult blood pathology
Blood hypochromia in mild adults does not lead to external clinical manifestations. Against the background of pathology, the skin can become pale. After physical exertion, the frequency of contractions of the heart slightly increases and the respiratory rhythm accelerates.
With a moderate degree of pathology, the symptoms of the anemic state of the blood in adults appear more clearly. Only in severe cases of the disease are signs of the disease:
- Fast fatiguability;
- Difficulty swallowing;
- Impaired digestion;
- Hair loss;
- Fragility of nails;
- General weakness;
- Noise in ears;
It should be understood that the signs of iron deficiency anemia in adults exist against the background of another pathology. Because of this, they are difficult to diagnose.
Symptoms of pathology in men and women differs depending on the cause of the disease. The representatives of the strong half endurance higher lady. Beauties are prone to blood loss, therefore, against the background of heavy menstrual periods, the pathological manifestations of the anemic syndrome are intensified.
If children have signs of anemia constantly and for a long time, then in women they become aggravated before the onset of the menstrual cycle (we are talking about iron-deficient normochromic pathology variants).
In adults, attention should be paid not to external signs of the disease:
- Flabbiness of the skin;
- Hair loss;
- Fragility of nails;
- Change in taste.
Against the background of iron deficiency in humans, there is a growing need for the use of sour, spicy and salty foods.
Causes and complications of anemic syndrome
Causes of anemic syndrome: bleeding (uterine, nasal, intestinal), diseases of the liver and spleen. There are medicinal forms of the disease, toxic forms. Under the influence of adverse factors appears aplastic version of the disease, hemolysis of red blood cells. With a lack of vitamin B12, a pernicious form of pathology appears.
During pregnancy, anemic syndrome in the long-term and uncontrolled state of a person leads to a violation of blood clotting.
Severe degrees of illness are fatal. When the disease is detected in the initial stages, you can stop the lethal outcome. Even in this case, the treatment of anemia is long. It lasts at least 4 months.
Throughout the course, the condition of the blood should be monitored using laboratory tests. They allow, if necessary, to control the dose of the drug.