In modern society, any celebration and event can not do without the use of alcoholic beverages.
Often, it is not always possible to control the amount of alcohol consumed and the issue of removing it and reducing the symptoms of a hangover becomes relevant. First of all, such information is essential for motorists.
Table output of alcohol from the body for the driver will help in this situation to get behind the wheel without fear of “getting caught under a fly” in the eyes of the traffic police. Such data can be useful to a simple man in the street to control his state at a party or feast.
In 2019, the permissible indicator of alcohol concentration in exhaled air from motorists is up to 0.16 ppm. In the blood a little higher – 0.35 ppm. The legislation of the Russian Federation also determines the probable error of the breathalyzer equal to 0.05 ppm.
Many factors affect the period of elimination of alcohol from the body:
- Features of use. If a certain amount of alcohol is drunk in a relatively short time, then a strong effect, alas, cannot be avoided. Its use in small portions and alternations with a snack ensures a moderate level of intoxication.
- The state of the liver. This factor is one of the decisive.
- Emotional condition. If a person is in an excited state, then ethyl alcohol will act more quickly and to a greater extent than on a person in a calm atmosphere.
- Physical data. A sick person is more susceptible to the effects of alcohol in the same way as women and the elderly. A sturdier, taller and larger man by drinking the same amount of alcohol will get intoxicated to a much lesser extent.
To find out how quickly alcohol is eliminated from the body, it is important to know the general mechanisms for its absorption..
Virtually all human organs are involved in this process.
Ethanol has a damaging effect on each of them.
Due to the fact that alcohol is a poison in relation to the body, when it enters the blood, its disintegration mechanism instantly starts.
Spread throughout the body
Spreading alcohol around the body is not a difficult process.. Drinking any alcoholic drink, he immediately enters the stomach and moves further along the digestive tract.
The main volume is absorbed further in the duodenum. This is due to the fact that it is very well supplied with blood and has a large number of vessels. In this way, ethanol molecules enter our bloodstream.
Alcohol absorption is a long process. For example, after the last drunk glass this process lasts at least another 30 minutes.
If a person plentifully eats and eats food, then the process may take several hours. For this reason, any alcoholic drink on an empty stomach “inserts” much faster.
Once in the blood, ethyl alcohol is carried by the bloodstream through the body to all organs, including the lungs and the brain. In the liver, it is gradually broken down in small portions and excreted from the body.
The presence of alcohol in brain tissue causes the effect of intoxication. The smell of alcohol when breathing occurs due to its penetration into the lungs. The maximum concentration of ethyl alcohol in the body occurs an hour after its use.
Effect on the body
The higher the concentration of ethanol in the blood, the more pronounced violations in human behavior. In this way:
- 0.2 to 0.5 ppm it is difficult to determine the speed of movement of light sources;
- 0.5 to 0.8 ppm, which corresponds to 150 ml of vodka or 1 liter of beer, the eye is heavily tuned to different types of lighting, including red light. Here, too, the viewing angle is reduced and the driver sees things worse on the sides;
- at a concentration of about 1.2 ppm the ability to drive is completely lost;
- 4-5 ppm – lethal to the human body dose.
Excretion and splitting
To know how long the alcohol is completely removed from the blood, it is necessary to clarify all the mechanisms for cleansing the body from it.
Leading the way is through the liver. Here ethanol is oxidized to acetaldehyde, a toxic substance that has a negative effect on all tissues, organs and cells of the body.
Cleavage occurs due to the action of a special enzyme called alcohol dehydrogenase. Then, by oxidation, acetaldehyde is converted into acetic acid, which can be utilized by various cells and tissues.
After how much time alcohol is eliminated from the body can be calculated in a simple mathematical way. In men, the average rate is about 0.1-0.15 ppm per hour. Women have an average of 0.1 ppm per hour.
In its pure form, ethanol can evaporate through the lungs and skin, as well as be filtered by the kidneys. It is impossible to speed up the process of alcohol breakdown in the liver, but it is quite possible to promote more intensive removal through the lungs, kidneys and skin.