Architectural style is a set of characteristics and features of architecture. Characteristic features of a certain time and place, manifested in the features of the functional, constructive and artistic aspects: the purpose of buildings, building materials and structures, methods of architectural composition – form the architectural style.
Architectural styles – full list:
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English facade: solid and durable
Modern English house combines several types of style: Georgian, Victorian, Tudor. The main features of such buildings are two floors, a steep slope of the roof, brickwork (usually red), a balcony with a balustrade, lattice windows, and the presence of wild stone and forged parts in the decoration. Signs of the home in English – an indispensable lawn at the entrance, as well as ivy or picturesque grapes on the walls. Garages English set separately, under the eaves. British design style is restraint, solidity and durability.
Barnhouse: simple but stylish
Barnhouse (Barnhouse, from the English. – “House-barn”) – architectural style of the XX — XXI centuries. Barnhouse fashion originated in Western Europe – at the junction of minimalism, loft and bio-tech. Outwardly, such a house looks simple: a rectangular, double-slope roof (often without overhangs), a laconic exterior finish, no frills. At the same time it is quite practical and convenient for life.
Baroque exterior: monumental pomp
The legislator of the baroque fashion is Michelangelo. In any case, the houses in the Baroque style are grandiose and pompous, like his sculptures. Span, tortuosity, fusion of construction and thoroughness of decoration – this is a brief overview of the Baroque architecture. Such a house requires space and facilities, because the style includes bay windows with balconies, pilasters, and recessed ceilings, arched openings, and even towers. And a rich decoration: stucco rosettes, garlands, wreaths. The windows in baroque houses are often of a semi-circular form, and the doors are framed by columns.
Victorian style: prestige and elegance
The architecture, popular in the 19th century in Albion and in the colonies, does not lose ground today. Victorian houses are 2-3 floors, asymmetry, a complex, multifaceted roof, an attic, often a round turret, a spacious porch, carved wood or metal trim, white or beige color. However, the Victorian style has many variations, depending on the time and place of its penetration into a particular cultural environment.
Gothic in architecture: chased mysteriousness
The style is legendary, historical, reminiscent of knights and duels. It has inherent lancet, fan arches, ribbed and vertical, rushing to the sky lines, arches, turning into columns, coffered ceilings, elongated, often stained glass windows. The house in the Gothic style is characterized by a sharp “skeleton”; its colors are yellow, brown, red, blue. Both stone and wood are used as building materials, because the style was formed in various circumstances. House with a gothic “face” – a strict, graphically-clear and darkly solemn!
Dutch style: unassuming peace
Dwellings in the kingdom of tulips and mills are real home hearths: comfortable, practical and durable. And all thanks to the conditions: the shaky swampy soil forced the architects to pedantic thoroughness, and the lack of space – to search for the maximum utility, functionality of housing. The qualities of the Dutch house-building are symmetrical lay-out, high gables, a sharp roof with wide ribs and hips, windows with wooden shutters, light plastered walls and a socle trimmed with stone. The Dutch house is the ideal “harbor” for those seeking solitude.
Deconstructivism: not like everyone else
The style of deconstructivism leaves no chances to any of the architectural absolutes. It is embedded in any environment with screaming broken shapes and structures that are difficult for visual perception. Deconstructivism is not called the direction of architecture, but its denial; nevertheless, deconstructivists still have a foothold – constructivism and postmodernism. Architects deliberately distort the principles and compositional motifs of these styles and, at the exit, receive a dynamic and individual construction object.
European style: popular versatility
Conservative, solid and suitable to any landscape, the European house, for the most part, has a square shape and is built in 2-3 floors. Features – hipped, tiled roof, basement, lined with stone or tiles, not very large, rectangular or arched windows, a balcony, or a bay window, a door of contrasting color. Decor stingy, rational, for example, wrought-iron railing of the porch and the balcony …
Italian architectural style: sophisticated drama
Smooth, “swan” lines, arched windows, vaulted ceilings, pretty balconies and a natural palette of the facade (from gray to brown), are signs of this style. Houses in the Italian style are built of stone and wood, and in the budget version – of brick and timber. Number of floors – from one to four. The courtyard plays a key role in creating the image of a magnificent Italian villa: cobbled paths, living fences, several sculptures, a fountain are imperative. The fence is usually of textured stone.
Country style house: warmth and soulfulness
This style has many faces and relies on local customs: for example, in France, “rural” houses of stone, and in Canada of logs. In any case, country-style involves traditional and natural raw materials. Distinctive touches of such an exterior are rusticity (facing of external walls with faceted stones), inclusion of hand-made objects (these can be forged door handles or a horseshoe at the entrance), the color of the facade resembling shades of clay, wood, sand. The courtyard is primed with the appropriate archaic: bird nests on poles, flower beds on carriages, model of a mill.
Classic exterior style: imitation of the best
Classical architecture is based on the ancient canons, on the best examples of the Italian Renaissance, English Georgian or Russian architecture. Classics in the exterior is the symmetry of the building (the main entrance is the axis around which the extensions are located), the presence of columns, triangular gables, porticos, balustrades, balusters and other accessories of a particular architectural era. Houses of the classical type are refined with pilasters and moldings. The preferred material, of course, is stone, however, nowadays, elements for decor are made from gypsum or polyurethane. Classic mansions – often two-story, light-colored …
Colonial exterior: modest charm
The wealthy immigrants and planters built their households, combining the “imported” capital and comfort with local exoticism. That is how the colonial exterior originated. Houses in this style are monumental, in two floors. The layout is straight, the entrance is supported by a colonnade. Erected from stone, plaster neutral color. The door is massive, wooden. Almost always available terrace. The buildings feature large, panoramic windows that offer views of the garden or wildlife.
Perhaps the most famous subspecies of the colonial exterior is the bungalow, a one-story mansion or a mansard, with a wide veranda over the entire width of the pediment. Its color is traditionally white, reflective, because bungalows were built in the tropics, combining the features of a traditional English cottage, army tents and oriental tents.
Constructivism in architecture: simplicity as art
Houses in the style of constructivism are distinguished by high functionality and artistic expressiveness, which is achieved not through decorative elements, but through forms and materials. The laconic geometry and high expediency inherent in constructivism are intertwined today with naturalness, naturalness, abundance of light and interior space. The main building materials are: concrete, glass, metal, plastic and other modern raw materials.
Loft: fashionable fundamentality
Exterior styles: loft
The idea of style – in the alteration of technological premises, factory workshops, garages or hangars into bohemian, luxury apartments.
A loft-style house is a very spacious, tall, geometrically emphasized building, usually with a minimum number of internal partitions. The main building materials are brick and concrete. Loft-frontage is alien to any finish, it does not require siding. The roof is often flat, but can be hipped, single or dual. Panoramic windows.
Art Nouveau house: gorgeous chic
Once this style became the banner of the movement for a new, at the peak of the “boring” classic architecture: with stately, curved lines, a variety of forms and ornaments. Since then, the contours of the openings in the house-modern are necessarily rounded, the windows are decorated with wavy, fancy lattices or stained glass windows, the facade is decorated with glazed tiles, mosaics, painting … In general, “every whim”, since the goal of modernity is to show the individuality of the homeowner, emphasizing the originality his nature.
Minimalism in architecture: freedom and light
Elementary and voluminous forms, flat roofs, huge windows, plenty of glass – this is how a cottage looks in a businesslike, minimalist style. Glass fragments are mounted even on the roof, and light-colored plaster, stone or wood siding are used to finish the facade. Common colors – calm, natural: white, beige, olive, gray.
Houses in German style: fabulous originality
These houses seem to have “jumped out” of the tales of Hoffmann and the Grimm brothers. They are compact and very neat in appearance. German style is characterized by conciseness, efficiency, the absence of an intricate finish and the natural color of the facade. Such a dwelling has a square or rectangular shape, the basement is covered with stone, and the gable roof has a tile of red shades. The German house is decorated with a balcony or attic, and also tinted boards – half-timbered elements. Original detail – windows separated by bridges and protected by shutters. The door is painted in color that stands out from the background of the house.
Norwegian style: compact and environmentally friendly
A traditional Norwegian house – usually built from a carriage, that is, from semi-hewn logs. A single-storey, squat, with small windows, it is nevertheless spacious inside, which is facilitated by the absence of a direct ceiling. The exterior texture is primarily the texture of the building material. Color contributes to aesthetics as well: Norwegian houses are painted in bright and juicy colors – cherry, orange, rich green. A frequent occurrence is a grass roof. This is not only a folklore “twisted”, but also an additional protection from the heat and cold.
Postmodernism in architecture
The irony and paradox, theatricality and complex imaginative associations are all about postmodernism, whose representatives present habitual forms in an unfamiliar context and advocate that everything can be art.
Provence-style architecture: rustic romanticism
Why does this style know no boundaries? – Because Provence is the embodiment of both brilliance and naivety, and also a symbol of family values. It is considered that the French region gave the name to the style, but “Provence” means “province”: pastorality, simplicity, slowness and regularity – these are its main “trumps”. In the south of France, houses are mostly built from wild stone, widely using pebbles and slate. In other places they resort to imitation, gypsum panels and slabs. But the roofs are always tiled, often multi-layered, of various levels. The northern wall is necessarily deaf. The windows of the lower floor may differ in size from the others, they are often supplemented with doors. The advantage of using natural colors: milky-white, herbal, straw. Annexes are welcome – verandas, terraces, kitchens, barns. The door is wooden, weighty, with forged hinges and a viewing window. The yard is covered with paving stones.
A Provencal-style home is unthinkable without a plot with spicy herbs, plain flowers and lavender in terracotta pots …
Prairie Style (Wright Style): Harmony and Functionality
“Frank Lloyd Wright is an American innovative architect. He had a great influence on the development of Western architecture in the first half of the 20th century. Created “organic architecture” and promoted an open plan in architecture. ”
Wright-style houses blend harmoniously into the surrounding landscape and adorn it.
Ranch style: thrift and thoroughness
This exterior, one of the most popular in the “one-story” America. Having absorbed the nuances of other styles, features of bungalows and “prairie buildings”, it finally took shape at the beginning of the last century. Low ranch houses are “spread out” in breadth, complicated by extensions, plastered and painted with light colors. The appearance of the house in the style of a ranch recalls that farmers began to build such housing: people are harsh, unpretentious, who appreciate work, but also good rest!
Rococo in architecture: unbridled luxury
Such houses preferred the French aristocrats. The classical order system, on the basis of which they were erected, is almost imperceptible due to the abundant, ornate decor. The walls of the Rococo house literally sink in through patterns and lace details – curls, rocailles, cartouches. Playful arches, slender colonnades, graceful cornices and railings give rooms idleness, and being of pleasant lightness. Artistry and mannerism permeate the rococo building, like a crystal shard of the sun. Traditional colors – gentle pastel colors.
Romanesque architecture: my home is my castle
The origins of this direction lie in the Middle Ages, when castles-citadels appeared everywhere. Their characteristic features – the primitiveness of the silhouette, massiveness and brutality, because the protection and shelter were the main task of such monasteries. The main building material served (and serves) stone. Diversified the construction of the apse, the tower with domes and arched vaults. Window openings were narrow, like loopholes. Of course, in the modern version of the Romanesque mansion does not look so trivial and rude, as in the old prints. The windows have become significantly larger, wild stone has been replaced by elegant styling. But the principle remained unshakable: mansions in the Romanesque style should be large, heavy and impregnable in appearance.
Russian architectural style: toy house
Exterior design in the Russian style is not as monotonous as it may seem. These are houses typical of Slavic wooden architecture, and mansions in the style of Russian merchants, and noble estates. The ball, of course, is ruled by wood. A Russian-style house rarely exceeds two floors, a double-sloped roof, small windows, trimmed with trim, and a covered porch is highly desirable. Balconies, ladders, turrets will give the mansion a resemblance to a fairy-tale hut, and an intricate carved decoration, an open veranda on figured supports – with the boyar’s mansions.
Scandinavian exterior styling: Nordic character
Among the features of this area are: natural building materials, minimal decor, glass doors, huge windows (or the whole transparent wall), which is dictated by the lack of sunlight. Scandinavian houses are covered with either white plaster or wooden clapboard, which also fulfills an aesthetic mission: door and windows are edged with dark wood, walls are sheathed with light wood or vice versa. The roof can be both flat and dual slope.
Mediterranean style house: glamor and bliss
Residences, which could only be admired on the warm coast, were also included in the design encyclopedia. Their peculiarity is light and joyful color (white, cream, pink); flat, tiled roof; half-open, covered with green verandas; spacious balconies and rotundas; pool and, of course, patio. The building may consist of several parts flowing into each other. Windows and doorways are often horseshoe-shaped. Preference is given to natural stone, ceramics, wood.
Modern architectural style: freedom of choice
Its value is in democracy. This design accepts any construction materials, up to the latest. Such a house is characterized by simplicity and relevance. He does not need embellishment, in those or other stylistic tricks. Duplex roof, ample space, panoramic windows and energy efficiency – perhaps all that is required …
Tudor Style: Noble Heritage
The Tudor House is the material embodiment of a truly English character. He is impressive and a little old-fashioned, like a hundred percent gentleman. Formed in the XVI century, combining the strokes of Gothic and Renaissance, Flemish and Italian motifs, the Tudor style still remains in demand. His attributes are thick walls, high chimneys, turrets, lancet openings. Well, limb, half-timbered – outer frame. In the old days, such houses were built of stone and wood, today they use aerated concrete, panels and blocks. Beams, cornices and shutters, as before, are highlighted in dark color. The main facade almost always contains a bay window, sometimes in the form of a turret. Not to mention the roof: the Tudor roofs are complex, with long hips and high gables, with small dormer windows. The entrance is in the form of an arch, lined with stone and decorated with the family coat of arms. The territory near the house is decorated with stone pavements, paved paths, wrought iron fences and, of course, English lawn.
Half-timbered houses: an old flavor
Glimpses of this style appeared in the 15th century in Germany. After several centuries, the fachwerk “captured” the whole of Western Europe. Appeal to him today.
In fact, the technique of fachwerk – frame construction method. Its basis is fastenings from wooden beams, racks, crossbars, braces. Once they were made of oak, jewelery combining between themselves “secret” cuttings and wooden studs. The voids between the beams were compacted with clay, pebbles, and straw. The walls were plastered, whitened, and the frame was painted in brown, cherry or black. He served as a facade ornament, dividing it into distinct segments. Houses lined with wooden patterns are still called half-timbered houses.
Today, in the construction of modern half-timbered houses use insulated panels, double-glazed windows, mount large panoramic windows. Thus, combining old craft and new technologies, create an exclusive image of the home.
Farm style: maximum air
Such an exterior is an extensive category: its English modification differs significantly from the Italian, and the Italian from the North American. Let us dwell on the general details. Farm houses are often single-storey, light-colored, with unobtrusive decor. A prominent feature is a large porch or an open veranda, which, if the area allows, can stretch along the perimeter of the house. For finishing choose either wood, or its materials imitating. The windows are large, with a good view, the door is often also glass …
Finnish style: wood scent
Another kind of wooden exterior. Finns use clapboard or planken for cladding the facade. Height – one and a half – two floors. Roof gable, keramo-tiled. There is often a terrace in front of the house, and a glazed balcony above it. The color of the facade – wood shades or light colors: blue, gray, beige. The highlight of the Finnish house, of course, is the sauna.
Fusion style: harmony of contradictions
Amazing this style sweeps away laws and rules. The architect and designer are free to use any materials, forms, textures … And even principles! Unlike eclecticism, which intertwines the individual parts of similar exteriors into a whole, fusion is a bold attempt to unite the diametrically opposite. For example, industrial design (loft) and baroque fragments. Or gothic with ethno. In addition, the style involves the use of complex colors, a variety of decor … And, of course, a subtle artistic flair that will not allow to slip into architectural cacophony and designer heresy.
Hi-tech in architecture: on the verge of fiction
Such houses are a challenge to tradition and a demonstration of scientific achievements. High-tech properties can be seen from afar thanks to wind turbines and solar panels. The layout assumes significant dimensions of the dwelling and cubic forms. The walls are absolutely flat, the structure is smooth, the materials are concrete, glass, metal and plastic. Color solution – white, black, silver, shades of various metals. High-tech – houses are also distinguished by a large glass area. The terrace may be open, but the central door is also glass, sliding. Roofs are often flat, in the form of flat areas that are easy to adapt for recreation. Facades are equipped with lighting.
Czech house: a secluded place
The design of Czech cottages echoes the European architectural traditions. Czech mansions are distinguished by their correct geometry, low ground, high and many-sided tiled roofs, and stone foundations. However, instead of tiles, they are sometimes covered with straw, which is in harmony with the rural landscape. The windows and doors are streamlined, rounded …
Chalet style homes: reliable protection
It is hard to believe that in the past, the chalet is just a shepherd’s cottage at the foot of the mountains. Cut off from civilization, this shelter had to differ in stamina, invulnerability, have the necessary level of comfort. The basement and the first floor were made of stone, the attic was made of logs. The roof of the Alpine houses is dvukhskatnaya, flat, with significant projections, turning into awnings. Facade facing east, living rooms to the south. The chalet has at least one roomy balcony.
The chalet in its present form is not only stone and wood, but also brick and concrete, as well as panoramic windows and a large terrace …
House in the style of Chateau: noble nest
Actually, the so-called country estates of French nobles, consisting of a castle, a park and, often, wineries, were so called. The glorified Versailles – in fact, chateau.
The style of such an exterior is determined by classical proportions, a large number of lamella windows decorated with bindings, a multi-slope roof, elegant gables, wide terraces, spacious balconies with forged, filigree railings and bay windows. The walls can be decorated with rustic stone, brick, decorated with stucco. The basement is usually made of natural stone, and the roof of the tiles. The facade in the style of chateau – a proud sign of the family nobility.
Swedish style: nice naturalness
As part of the Scandinavian style, Swedish home architecture continues the tradition of spectacular simplicity. The peculiarity of the Swedish cottage is a contrasting color: its walls are painted in red, and the corners, window frames and doors are embossed in white. The buildings are mostly wooden, the windows are large, because the sunlight in these parts is especially valued.
Ethnostyle: from the tower to the wigwam
The national handwriting is the soul of the ethnicity. This may be a house resembling a Russian log cabin, built using wood and topped with a ridge on the roof. Or a mansion with an oriental “accent” in the form of an Arabic ornament, Persian lattices and tiles. In other words, how many cultures, building traditions – so many sources that feed a diverse ethno-exterior.
Ethno-style, African motifs
Ethno style, Thai motifs
Japanese style in architecture: conciseness and lightness
Japanese-style country houses can be seen not only in the country of the Rising Sun. This is because the Japanese style is incredibly organic. His strengths – clarity, impeccability, simplicity of lines. Materials – stone, glass and wood, restrained palette. Sliding doors in such a house are on each side; The central entrance is often supplemented with stepped floorings resembling a porch and a bridge. The house can have a covered veranda with a wide view, and an open terrace. The continuation of the Japanese dwelling is an authentic landscape: a mini-pond, several picturesque boulders and a pair of dwarf pines will even turn an ordinary dwelling into a philosopher’s refuge.