Today is the actual problem of health preservation of schoolchildren. Schoolchildren’s health is one of the most important results of education, and the preservation and strengthening of health is a priority for the activities of an educational institution. [sixteen]. The school where I study has a health-saving status and much attention is paid to the issue of preserving the health of schoolchildren.
Health is a concept that includes biological, psychological, and social components . It is generally accepted that when studying at school, the level of students’ health decreases . This occurs, among other things, because the learning process, causing the intensity of adaptation systems, leads to an increase in the level of anxiety, which, in aggregate, causes the appearance of pathologies.
Thus, the relevance of our topic is determined by the need to study the mechanisms of formation of increased anxiety in order to develop methods for maintaining and promoting health.
We hypothesize that the level of anxiety of high school students is directly related to the degree of adaptation and level of health.
To study the relationship of the level of health and adaptation of high school students with the level of anxiety.
1. To conduct a theoretical analysis of the problem of anxiety in high school students.
2. To conduct a survey of a group of high school students.
3. Statistically process the data obtained.
4. To investigate the relationship of the level of health and adaptation of high school students with the level of anxiety.
Brief literature review
An analysis of the literature has shown that many authors have studied the relationship between health and adaptation and anxiety among schoolchildren.
In the psychological dictionary, the following definition of anxiety is given: “the tendency of an individual to experience anxiety, characterized by a low threshold of occurrence of anxiety reaction, is one of the main parameters of individual differences” [11, 15].
In the concept of G. Selye, anxiety is analyzed as the first phase of the general adaptation syndrome . This is a nonspecific defense response caused by exposure to a variety of external stimuli, stressors. Stress – a state of the body, determined by these non-specific changes and is considered as an attempt to restore homeostatic balance. There are three phases of the general adaptation syndrome:
1) reaction, anxiety, mobilization,
2) the stage of resistance, resistance,
3) stage of depletion of adaptive capacity.
Some individual level of anxiety, which performs an adaptive mobilizing function – useful anxiety, is peculiar to each person. Bozovic
1) open – consciously experienced and manifested in the behavior and activities in the form of anxiety;
2) hidden – in a sharp degree unconscious, manifested either by excessive calm, insensitivity to real distress and even its denial, or indirectly through specific behaviors [18, 19].
There are situational anxiety associated with a particular situation and personal anxiety, which is a property of the person [26, 28].
An increased level of anxiety can disrupt the adaptation process to such an extent that behavioral disturbances appear.
The concept of “adaptation” should be considered central to the problem of health. The study of adaptation processes is reflected in the numerous works of several domestic and foreign scientists G. Selye (1979),
“Health is the number of reserves in the body, the maximum productivity of organs while maintaining the qualitative limits of their functions,” says the author of the work “Adaptation and reserves of the body”
In his research Kravchenko
Materials and research methods
The study was conducted in MBOU “School number 80” of the city of Rostov-on-Don. The students of the 9th and 10th grades were surveyed, in total 48 people, of them 19 young men and 29 girls. The age of the subjects was 15-16 years.
Evaluation of the level of anxiety of students was carried out using the methods: “Self-assessment of the general psychological state” according to G. Aysenko (general emotionality); “The scale of self-esteem situational and personal anxiety” (according to Spielberger – Khanin).
The level of health and adaptation was studied using the methods: “Diagnosis of the degree of asthenic condition” (Form 1) – the development of the Psycho-Neurological Institute.
As a result of the processing of tests, estimates of the severity of each indicator in points were obtained. In the future, these points were subjected to correlation analysis using the program «Statistica 6». The confidence level of the correlation coefficients was 0.05 .
Research results and discussion
All obtained values of the indicators were checked for the reliability of differences between groups of subjects. The criteria for the division into groups were: the age of the subjects (35 people – sixteen and 13 – fifteen) and gender differences (29 people – girls and 19 – young men). For these groups, we analyzed the reliability of differences between the rows of indicators of the two groups by the Student’s t-test for independent variables with a confidence level of 0.05. It turned out that no significant differences between the groups were observed in any of the analyzed indicators.
From this we concluded that the sample under study is homogeneous, which gave us reason to calculate the correlation coefficients for the entire data set, including indicators of 48 people.
In the program “Statistica 6”, we calculated the correlation matrix of direct correlation coefficients with a confidence level of 0.05. From the obtained matrix of correlation coefficients, we first of all analyzed reliable correlation coefficients reaching medium and high values (from 0.4 and above), both positive and negative, between the indicators characterizing the level of anxiety and the indicators characterizing the health of the subjects. .
The representation of the values of indicators characterizing the level of anxiety: in the surveyed group: “Personal anxiety” (RT), “Situational anxiety” (ST) and “Anxiety” (T) covered the entire range of levels of these indicators from low to high.
LT, CT and T have high positive correlation coefficients among themselves) (КЛТ-СТ = 0.81; ККЛТ-Т = 0.68; ККСТ-Т = 0.60), which apparently reflects their functional and genetic relationship .
We were interested in the relationship of indicators of anxiety (RT, ST and T) with indicators characterizing the level of health of the individual, the degree of its adaptation. These indicators include: the level of neuropsychic tension (NNP), the degree of asthenic state (CAC), well-being (according to SAN), mood (according to SAN). This group of indicators reveals significant correlation coefficients with LT, CT and T indicators (see table).
The indicators characterizing the reduced adaptation of the nervous system (NNP, SAS) have high, positive correlation coefficients with RT, CT and T. T.
Thus, indicators of the level of anxiety: RT, CT and T naturally correlate with indicators reflecting the level of health and adaptation.
The data presented in the table are illustrated by the scheme of correlation links between indicators of the level of anxiety and indicators of the level of health and adaptation.
To obtain this summary scheme, health indicators were divided into subgroups. In the subgroup that characterizes a low level of health, we included indicators: the level of neuropsychic tension, the degree of asthenic condition,
Indicators of the level of anxiety, we have combined into one group
Between all selected indicators, we calculated the average correlation coefficients.
1. Indicators reflecting a high level of health and adaptation reliably negatively correlate with indicators of the level of anxiety, and indicators reflecting a low degree of adaptation correlate reliably positively with indicators of anxiety.
2. Increasing the level of health naturally may entail an optimization of the level of anxiety.