Dysbacteriosis – any changes in the quantitative or qualitative normal composition of the intestinal microflora …
… as a result of changes in the pH of the intestinal environment (decrease in acidity), occurring against the background of a decrease in the number of bifidus, lacto-and propionobacteria for various reasons … If the number of bifidus, lacto-propionobacteria decreases, the amount of acid metabolites produced these bacteria to create an acidic environment in the intestines … This is used by pathogens and begin to actively proliferate (pathogenic microbes do not tolerate an acidic environment) …
… moreover, the pathogenic microflora itself produces alkaline metabolites, which increase the pH of the medium (decrease in acidity, increase alkalinity), alkalization of intestinal contents occurs, and this is a favorable environment for habitat and reproduction of pathogenic bacteria.
Metabolites (toxins) of the pathogenic flora change the pH in the intestine, indirectly causing dysbacteriosis, as a result of which it becomes possible to introduce microorganisms foreign to the intestines, and the normal filling of the intestines with bacteria is disturbed. Thus, a peculiar vicious circle , only aggravating the course of the pathological process.
In our diagram, the concept of “dysbiosis” can be described as follows:
For various reasons, the number of bifidobacteria and / or lactobacilli is reduced, which is manifested in the reproduction and growth of pathogenic microbes (staphylococci, streptococci, clostridia, fungi and
Also, the reduction of bifidobacteria and lactobacilli can be manifested by the growth of concomitant pathogenic microflora (E. coli, enterococci), as a result of which they begin to show pathogenic properties.
And of course in some cases the situation is not excluded when the useful microflora is completely absent.
This is actually the variants of various “plexuses” of intestinal dysbiosis.
What is pH and acidity? Important!
Any solutions and liquids are characterized pH (pH – potential hydrogen – potential hydrogen), quantifying them acidity.
If the pH is within
– from 1.0 to 6.9, then the medium is called sour;
– equal to 7.0 – neutral Wednesday;
– when the pH is from 7.1 to 14.0, the medium is alkaline.
The lower the pH, the higher the acidity, the higher the pH, the higher the alkalinity of the medium and the lower the acidity.
In the body, the pH level regulates the acidity of the blood, the acidity of the urine, the acidity of the vagina, the acidity of the semen, the acidity of the skin and
Acidity in the colon
Acidity in the colon:
… By producing organic acids and lowering the pH of the intestinal contents, normal microflora creates conditions under which pathogenic and conditionally pathogenic microorganisms cannot reproduce. Actually, therefore, streptococci, staphylococcus, Klebsiella, Clostridium fungi and other “bad” bacteria make up only 1% of the whole intestinal microflora of a healthy person.
- The fact is that pathogenic and conditionally pathogenic microbes cannot exist in an acidic environment and specifically produce the same alkaline metabolic products (metabolites) aimed at alkalizing the intestinal contents by increasing the pH level in order to create favorable living conditions for themselves (increased. PH – hence – moderate acidity – therefore – alkalization). I repeat once again that bifido, lacto and propionobacteria neutralize these alkaline metabolites, plus they also produce acid metabolites themselves that lower the pH level and increase the acidity of the medium, thereby creating favorable conditions for their existence. Hence the eternal opposition of “good” and “bad” microbes, which is governed by Darwinian law: “the strongest survive”!
- Bifidobacteria are able to lower the pH of the intestinal environment to 4.6-4.4;
- Lactobacilli up to 5.5-5.6 pH;
- Propionobacteria are able to lower the pH to 4,
As you can see, all these bacteria are acid-forming, for this reason they are often called “acid formers” or often simply “lactic acid bacteria”, although the same propionic bacteria are not lactic, but propionic acid bacteria …
Acidity in the nasopharynx, in the mouth
As I noted in the chapter in which we examined the functions of the microflora of the upper respiratory tract: one of the functions of the microflora of the nose, pharynx and throat is the regulatory function,
… But if the “intestinal pH regulation” is performed only by the normal intestinal microflora (bifidus, lacto-and propionobacteria), and this is one of its main functions, then in the nasopharynx and in the mouth the function of “pH regulation” is performed not only by the normal microflora of these bodies, as well as mucous secrets: saliva and snot …
- You have already noticed that the composition of the microflora of the upper respiratory tract differs significantly from the intestinal microflora, if in the intestine of a healthy person beneficial microflora predominate (bifidobacteria and lactobacilli), then conditionally pathogenic microorganisms (neisserias, corynebacteria, etc. ), lacto-and bifidobacteria are present there in an insignificant amount (by the way, bifidobacteria can be completely absent). Such a differential composition of the intestinal microflora and respiratory tract due to the fact that they perform different functions and tasks (functions of the microflora of the upper respiratory tract, see
So, nasopharyngeal acidity determines its normal microflora, as well as mucous secretions (snot) – secretions that produce glands of the epithelial tissue of the mucous membranes of the respiratory tract. The normal pH (acidity) of the mucus is 5.5-6.5, this is acidic. Accordingly, the pH in the nasopharynx in a healthy person has the same values.
Acidity of mouth and throat determines their normal microflora and mucous secrets, in particular, saliva. The normal pH of saliva is 6.8-7.4 pH, accordingly, the pH in the mouth and throat takes the same values.
1. The pH level in the nasopharynx and mouth depends on its normal microflora, which depends on the state of the intestine.
2. The pH level in the nasopharynx and in the mouth depends on the pH of the mucous secretions (snot and saliva), this pH in turn also depends on the balance of the state of our intestines.
The acidity of the stomach is on average
Unlike the intestine, where acidity creates normal microflora (bifidus, lacto-and propionobacteria), as well as unlike the nasopharynx and mouth, where acidity is created by normal microflora and mucous secretions (snot, saliva), The main contribution to the total acidity of the stomach is made by the gastric juice – hydrochloric acid, which is produced by the cells of the glands of the stomach, which are located mainly in the bottom and the body of the stomach.
So, it was an important digression about “pH”, now we continue.
In the scientific literature, there are, as a rule, four microbiological phases in the development of dysbacteriosis …
What are the phases in the development of dysbacteriosis, you will learn from the next chapter, also learn about the forms and causes of this phenomenon, and about this type of flow of dysbiosis, when there are no symptoms from the gastrointestinal tract.