Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (formulation of the diagnosis of COPD) is a pathological process, which is characterized by partial restriction of air flow in the airways. The disease causes irreversible changes in the human body, so there is a great threat to life if the treatment was prescribed at the wrong time.
The pathogenesis of COPD is not yet fully understood. But experts identify the main factors causing the pathological process. As a rule, the pathogenesis of the disease includes progressive bronchial obstruction. The main factors influencing the formation of the disease are:
- Adverse professional conditions.
- Crude and cold climate.
- Infection of mixed origin.
- Acute prolonged bronchitis.
- Diseases of the lungs.
- Genetic predisposition.
What are the manifestations of the disease?
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is a pathology most commonly diagnosed in patients over the age of 40 years. The first symptoms of the disease that the patient begins to notice are coughing and shortness of breath. Often this condition is in combination with whistles during breathing and sputum secretions. At first, it comes out in a small volume. Symptoms become more pronounced in the morning.
Coughing is the very first symptom that bothers patients. In the cold season, respiratory diseases, which play an important role in the formation of COPD, are exacerbated. Obstructive pulmonary disease has the following symptoms:
- Shortness of breath, which worries when performing physical exertion, and then can affect a person during rest.
- Under the influence of dust, cold air, shortness of breath increases.
- Symptoms are complemented by an unproductive cough with difficult sputum.
- Dry rales of high temp when exhaling.
- Symptoms of emphysema.
Classification of COPD is based on the severity of the disease. In addition, it assumes the presence of a clinical picture and functional indicators.
Classification of COPD involves 4 stages:
- The first stage – the patient does not notice any pathological abnormalities. He may attend a cough of a chronic nature. Organic changes are vague, therefore, it is not possible to diagnose COPD at this stage.
- The second stage – the disease is not difficult. Patients go to the doctor for advice about shortness of breath during exercise. Another chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is accompanied by an intense cough.
- The third stage of COPD is accompanied by a severe course. It is characterized by the presence of a limited flow of air into the respiratory tract; therefore, shortness of breath is formed not only during physical exertion, but also at rest.
- The fourth stage is an extremely difficult course. Emerging symptoms of COPD are dangerous for life. Observed clogged bronchi and a pulmonary heart is formed. Patients who are diagnosed with Stage 4 COPD are disabled.
Diagnosis of the presented disease includes the following methods:
- Spirometry is a method of research, due to which it is possible to determine the first manifestations of COPD.
- Measurement of the vital capacity of the lungs.
- Cytological examination of sputum. This diagnosis allows you to determine the nature and severity of the inflammatory process in the bronchi.
- A blood test can detect an increased concentration of red blood cells, hemoglobin and hematocrit in COPD.
- Radiography of the lung allows you to determine the presence of seals and changes in the bronchial walls.
- ECGs provide data on the development of pulmonary hypertension.
- Bronchoscopy is a method that allows you to establish a diagnosis of COPD, as well as view the bronchi and determine their condition.
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is a pathological process that cannot be cured. However, the doctor prescribes a certain therapy to his patient, thanks to which it is possible to reduce the frequency of exacerbations and prolong the life of a person. The course of the prescribed therapy is greatly influenced by the pathogenesis of the disease, because it is very important to eliminate the cause contributing to the occurrence of the pathology. In this case, the doctor prescribes the following activities:
- Treatment of COPD involves the use of drugs whose action is aimed at increasing the lumen of the bronchi.
- To liquefy sputum and its removal into the process of therapy involves mucolytic agents.
- Help to stop the inflammatory process with glucocorticoids. But their prolonged use is not recommended, as serious side effects begin to occur.
- If an exacerbation occurs, then it indicates the presence of its infectious origin. In this case, the doctor prescribes antibiotics and antibacterial drugs. Their dosage is prescribed taking into account the sensitivity of the microorganism.
- For those who suffer from heart failure, oxygen therapy is needed. During exacerbation, the patient is prescribed sanitary and resort treatment.
- If the diagnosis confirmed the presence of pulmonary hypertension and COPD, accompanied by reporting, the treatment includes diuretics. Glycosides help eliminate arrhythmia manifestations.
COPD – a disease whose treatment can not do without a properly formulated diet. The reason is that the loss of muscle mass can lead to death.
A patient can be admitted to hospital if he has:
- greater intensity of increase in the manifestation of manifestations;
- treatment does not give the desired result;
- new symptoms occur;
- broken heart rhythm;
- diagnostics identifies diseases such as diabetes mellitus, pneumonia, poor performance of the kidneys and liver;
- Unable to provide medical care on an outpatient basis;
- difficulties in diagnosis.
Prevention of COPD includes a set of measures by which each person can warn his body against this pathological process. It consists in following the recommendations:
- Pneumonia and flu are the most common causes of COPD. Therefore, it is necessary to put flu shots every year.
- Once in 5 years to carry out vaccination against pneumococcal infection, so you can protect your body from pneumonia. Prescribe a vaccination can only the attending physician after conducting an appropriate examination.
- Taboo on smoking.
Complications of COPD can be very diverse, but, as a rule, they all lead to disability. Therefore, it is important to carry out the treatment in time and be under the supervision of a specialist all the time. And it is best to carry out preventive measures in a qualitative manner in order to prevent the formation of the pathological process in the lungs and to prevent oneself from this affliction.