Nonverbal communication

Childhood. Adolescence. Youth

Andrei Romanovich Chikatilo was born on October 16, 1936 in the village of Yablochnoye, Akhtyrsky District of the Sumy Region of the Ukrainian SSR. Parents at the time of his birth were over 30 years old. Andrei described his father as a quiet, modest man. He often told his son about the war, about how he was in the concentration camp, while crying. Speaking of mother, Chikatilo recalled that she often could not devote enough time to her children, all her thoughts were aimed at somehow ensuring their survival.

And this is not an exaggeration, since the most difficult trials in the history of the country fell to the lot of the young family – these are the periods of the famine of 1932-1933. and 1946-1947, and, of course, the Great Patriotic War. At the beginning of the war, Father Chikatio went to the front, while his mother and Andrey from 1941 to 1943 remained to live in the territory occupied by the fascists. According to A. Korchinsky, the author of an interview with his son

Direct speech. Andrey Chikatilo

It was my fifth year when my father was taken to the front. I remember it was a very good day, summer and warm, and there was nothing gloomy in it. In addition to the father, all the fellow villagers of military age went to the front, and there was no one to do agricultural work, the village was empty.

I remember the horrors of the childhood years when we hid from bombing and shooting in basements, quarries, hungry and cold sat in ditches; rush under the whistle of bullets; I remember how my native house was burning, and the atrocities of the fascists.

As he recalled later, once a detachment of Red Army soldiers was passing through the village: young men, in new uniforms, they were going to accept a mortal combat on the outskirts of the village. After the fight, a little boy witnessed a very different picture. He saw the same soldiers as the day before, but now they were all dead, many bodies were bloody, mutilated, without arms or legs. This picture for a long time ran into his memory.

Father Chikatilo avoided a similar fate. He did not die at the front, did not become disabled, although it’s hard to call his fate happy. Having escaped from the encirclement, he left for the partisan detachment. For some time partisan, committed military actions against the occupiers. Then he was captured. He worked for the Germans in the mine. He was released by the Americans. After his release, he was repressed as, according to the Stalinist canons, he could work for German and American intelligence. He was sent for logging in the Komi ASSR, then – in Chuvashia.

So the family was left without a breadwinner in the most difficult period of the mass famine of 1946-47, which had particularly grave consequences in the Ukrainian SSR. Researchers from this period of Soviet history describe the situation as follows:

The food shortage in 1946 led to the fact that the state removed almost the entire rural population (100 million people) from the food ration, who was offered to survive solely by their own subsidiary farming. However, due to directives on maximizing grain procurements, in 8% of collective farms, payment for workdays for grain was discontinued, and most of the others produced no more than 1 kg of grain per day. Monetary wages in 30% of farms were not carried out, so people there also could not buy food for money. At the same time, in September 1946, the price of bread in government stores was doubled. The following figures indicate the scale of hunger: by the spring of 1947, in the Voronezh region alone, the number of patients diagnosed with “dystrophy” was 250 thousand, only 600 thousand in the RSFSR, more than 800 thousand in Ukraine, and more in Moldova 300 thousand. Thus, at least 1.7 million people in the USSR were considered “officially starving”, the death rate from dystrophy reached 10% of the total number of people who were diagnosed. Especially high was the infant mortality rate, at the beginning of 1947, accounting for up to 20% of the total number of deaths. The population was in a terrible position, in a number of regions of Ukraine and the Black Earth region, cases of cannibalism were noted.

Nonverbal communication

Realizing that cannibalism is becoming a reality of life in starvation time, the mother tried to warn her young children against this danger. She told Andrei that during the Holodomor of 1933 his elder brother Stepan was allegedly kidnapped and eaten by people starved of hunger. This story made an impression on little Andrew, and he did not leave the house, fearing that he, like his brother, could also be caught and eaten.

To understand Chikatilo’s personality, the fact that he knew from an early age that his elder brother was eaten by the starving is extremely important. Eating a person was for him a reality, not an abstraction, as for the vast majority of people. What came to him in the story does not play a significant role, since his father and mother told him about it, and besides about his brother. It can be assumed that it is firmly settled in his psyche and largely guided actions, although he did not give himself the report. In addition, in his childhood, the most susceptible years, he generally saw many dead and deaths, and death long ago became for him something close and comprehensible.

Direct speech. Andrey Chikatilo

I remember the famine after the war, I remember the dead. I remember how I saw with horror how those who died of starvation were being taken away on the street – without coffins wrapped in rags, when I heard conversations about cannibalism … I was plump with hunger with my mother and sister. My sister and I crawled through the grass, ate “balls”, roared and looked out for my mother from the collective farm field when she brought us a piece of black bread.

Naturally, he forms a fear of being destroyed, a very real danger for himself, in other words, the fear of death. Such fear is almost always unconscious, but it creates a personal disposition, a certain vision of the world, its own philosophy, and it all begins to take shape from childhood, with no sense of security in cases of non-acceptance by other people, especially parents. In this regard, it should be emphasized that his whole subsequent life only strengthened this fear, since it consisted of a continuous series of humiliations, beatings, sexual violence, and alienation from people.

Much later, in 1990-92. All these ghosts of the past will rise again in Chikatilo’s stories, he will constantly return to these tragic pages of his biography and in conversations with investigators who are investigating his crimes, during the forensic psychiatric examination, and during interviews with journalists.

Direct speech. Andrey Chikatilo

In September 1944, I went to grade 1, hungry and ragged. At school, from hungry fainting, I fell under the desk. I walked in rags. He was the subject of ridicule and could not defend himself. He was too shy, timid, shy. If I didn’t have a pen or ink in my class, I just sat at the desk and cried. Sometimes students talked about this teacher. She was surprised: “Why, Andrei has no language?” If I had to go to the toilet, I was afraid to take time off.

I did not see well written on the board – congenital myopia, now I have glasses: – 4.0. I was afraid to ask what was written on the board, I could hardly distinguish it – I was nervous, I cried. We did not have glasses in those years, we were not checked for vision, and then with age he was afraid of the nickname “bespectacled.” I began to wear glasses only at the age of thirty when I got married.

Since at school I did not assimilate the material from the words of the teacher – by absent-mindedness, and from the blackboard – by blindness, I intensively studied at home on my own, using textbooks. So I had stealth, privacy, alienation.

… all my life I was humiliated, trampled, I despaired, I am characterless, I could not defend myself from the guys. They beat me because of my awkwardness, slowness of action, absent-mindedness, they called melody, pussy, woman, I could not give them a surrender. Tears of insult choked me all my life. I was embarrassed even that which was born. I remember hiding in weeds until my mother comes.

… c mom relations are normal, generally good. She never punished, but she did not caress either, and what kind of affection is there, when at work from dawn to dusk. Then everything died of hunger, so that the main caress was a piece of bread.

…. The father is quiet, modest, I look more like him .. I prayed to God that my father would quickly return from exile (after captivity) and protect me. I remember how in those years, in a cold hut – every time I was alone – I knelt before the icon in the corner and prayed: “Lord, give me back my father!” And in 1949 my father returned from the war. The patient, with pulmonary tuberculosis, spit blood, lay, groaned. It was necessary good food, but it was not. Mother also had frequent headaches, but did not treat the collective farm. And they did not know the disease at that time. He defended me, but not so much, so I tried not to go out …

Because of his health, his father could not work with full dedication, and he was not given a good job, because he was a prisoner. Father and mother worked on the collective farm, and they received nothing for workdays, except for products that were barely enough. Our family, even by the standards of that time, was poor.

As can be seen from this story, since childhood Chikatilo was timid, withdrawn, shy, he had no close friends, he was distinguished by reverie, impressionability and a penchant for fantasy. Andrei was weak and clumsy, on top of that he had a whole bunch of physical defects, which he was very worried about, like, for example, myopia mentioned in Chikatilo’s story, moreover, it is known that he suffered from nocturnal enuresis until 12 years old. On his own, he was unable to protect himself, which his peers had felt as a child. At the same time, his parents did not protect him at all. My father was “quiet, modest,” and Chikatilo could not even find psychological support in him. The mother, as can be inferred from his story, took a kind of neutral position — she did not punish, but she didn’t caress, and this suggests her indifference to her son, which, of course, was destructive for the child, especially if he were viciously pursued by other boys. As notes

Studying relationships in such families, a psychiatrist

Another specialist who had direct contact with Chikatilo

When emotional contacts with parents are absent, their moral values ​​in verbal or behavioral terms are not learned by the child. If the mother or father does not fulfill the functions assigned to them, the child has a feeling of being insecure, insecure, anxious. If the situation does not improve, such sensations can progress, turning into constant anxiety and even fear. It is important to emphasize that when the emotional needs of the child are not met, he may not form a need to communicate with people as a result of the distance that was formed between him and his parents at an early stage of life. As a result, the foundations are laid for the future psychological alienation of the individual, the lack of understanding and rejection of the environment and its values, and even the expectation of a threat from its side. The lack of social need for communication originates in the above-mentioned most sensitive period in the life of the individual.

The danger of these socio-psychological formations for the further fate of a person is noted by L. B. Filonov. Being generalized and going deep, becoming more and more stable and rigid, they deform the personality, acquire a pivotal character, begin to develop independently. Anomalous personality structures and distorted outlines of individual aspects of personality are created. These parties then begin to selectively respond only to some, as if “pre-prepared” social impacts for them, filtering them from the masses of others. A. F. Polis adheres to a similar position, believing that a violation of the primary connections of socialization, emotional contacts can not only contribute to alienation and neuroticism, but also correlate, in all likelihood, with such phenomena as alcoholism, hooliganism, cruelty, and some other forms of deviating behavior.

Summing up the above, we can argue that the absence or significant impoverishment of the emotional contacts of the child with the mother and father, rejecting him by one of them and especially both is the psychological alienation of the individual, which lays the foundation for further disadaptation. The family, including children in its psychological structure, thus ensures their primary socialization, introducing them “through themselves” into the structure of society. If this does not happen, the child is alienated from the family, which creates the prerequisites for a very likely distancing from society, its institutions and values ​​in the future. Alienation from the family can turn into a persistent maladaptive existence.

Thus, in the absence of the necessary emotional contacts with parents from the earliest years, Chikatilo arises and consolidates the idea not only of alienity and incomprehensibility, but also of the hostility of the surrounding world.

Time passes and ugly, notorious, weak-sighted boy becomes a young man, fear – the fear of humiliation, the fear of violence – has entered his flesh and blood. He is completely alone against the hostile world and continues to collect his failures and humiliations from his classmates.

Direct speech. Andrey Chikatilo

Once, as usual, from the timidity of my own, I was standing in the corner at the break, and then the “mad” classmates pushed the girl at me. She tried not to fall and lingered on me. I did not deliberately, but from the horror that a girl was on me, strongly pushed her away from me. After that, a very annoying nickname stuck to me – “Andrew – power” …

Direct speech. Andrey Chikatilo

He tried to learn ahead of his comrades. Participated in amateur performances. True, in collective forms – choir, literary and musical installation. He was the editor of the wall newspaper in all classes. Designed all the documentation of the pioneer detachment, then – the Komsomol group. He was an active agitator, political informer, member of the Komsomol school committee. In school until late he drew benefits in different subjects.

Having learned the lessons of writing and speaking, I drew tables. I had two favorite activities. In the middle classes, I decided to portray an infinite series of ordinal numbers and wrote almost up to a million. In the eighth grade, I decided to make a detailed atlas in all regions and districts, where I wrote out the names of the districts that belong to different regions from newspapers. In the geography textbook on every page I had the name of the secretary general of this country, since I was convinced that communism was already coming.

Poverty and indelible shame gave rise to my stubborn dream of a high political career. I firmly believed: I will not be the last person. My place in the Kremlin … “

Excerpt from the expert opinion of the commission of the Institute of General and Forensic Psychiatry. Serbian (1991)

When analyzing anamnestic information, signs indicating that Chikatilo has an inborn cerebral-organic pathology – dysplasticity, myopia, enuresis – do not pay attention to themselves. Against this background, in his childhood, pathocharacterologic features were revealed in the form of disharmonious combination of features inherent in schizoid and epileptoid types of psychopathy, which was manifested in isolation, vulnerability, increased anxiety, aptitude for fantasy. Attention is drawn to the nature of children’s fantasies, their imagery, sensuality, fixation on negative emotional experiences. At the same age, the ease of the occurrence of neurotic disorders in the form of fears was noted, the plot of which also reflected significant experiences for him. In the prepubertal age appeared overvalued hobbies. In the structure of neurosis-like disorders of this period, dysmorphic manifestations (conviction in one’s own physical disabilities) prevailed. At the same time, an increased interest in studies, the desire to get an education, to be the best, and thus stand out among peers indicate that he has overcompensation reactions. The same may indicate an attempt to overcome their eternal anxiety, asserting themselves in a certain role. At the same age there is an interest in sociopolitical and philosophical problems, which for a certain period acquire a one-sided, exaggerated and inflexible nature.

Direct speech. Andrey Chikatilo

But I dreamed of high love, like in the movies, in books. If a girl sat down at me, I was shy, afraid, didn’t know how to behave, timid, shivering, trying to get up from the bench; Parents put all of my children as an example: “What kind of Andrew is quiet, modest, and studies in the tenth grade, and works at home, and on the collective farm”. And it enraged me – I was lonely, aloof.

… I liked the girl in the 10th grade, Lilya Barysheva. She lived in a railway booth at the station – we were with her once with classmates. I liked how she played the partisan role in an amateur performance. Liked her modesty, femininity. We were taught in the school of sublime love. I liked the freckles on Lily’s face. What are her eyes, I do not know. With my short-sighted eyes, I could not look into them.

Once we went to the cinema in a country club with our whole class. It was necessary for this to happen that in this club I ended up next to Lily. She was a pretty girl and was liked by all the boys of our class, but she did not pay attention to me, as if I was an empty place. Because of my poor clothes and my isolation, I apparently did not like anyone and could not like …

In the club during the session, I was not only afraid to touch her hand, but I was afraid to look in her direction. And she was fascinated by the film and did not pay attention to me. Fearing to move, I sat through the whole film, without realizing what kind of film it was. In the evening, when I went to bed, I dreamed, imagined that I embraced her, even a kiss. It was an impossible dream.

I wanted to always talk to Lily or go to her house along the way, but never dared …

I saw one way out – to prove myself in the sciences, in work and wait for high love.

In the spring of 1954, in grade 10, I once broke. Not far from our house lived my sister’s classmate Tanya Bala. At 13, she was a pretty big girl. She had full legs, clearly marked hips. Somehow my sister and her parents were visiting relatives in a nearby village, and I was alone at home. Tanya came to our yard. She talked to me, asked me to call my sister. I do not remember what I answered her, but looking around and making sure that no one sees us, he pounced on her, pushed him to the ground under a large tree. From surprise or from fear, she did not utter a word or even offered me any resistance. I did not even think that first I had to bare her and my lower body, I lay down on her in my clothes and tried to imitate sexual intercourse. When she awoke, Tanya tried to push me, to free herself. But she did not succeed for a long time. And in this fight, I experienced an orgasm. There was some noise in my head, my eyes were dim …

I was very worried about this weakness, although no one saw it. For several hours I wandered around the district, shy away from people, fearing that she had told everyone about what had happened. And after this misfortune, I decided to tame my flesh, my base impulses. Then he wrote an oath: “Pizda is the organ of human reproduction. I swear not to touch anyone except my wife. ” Hid the oath in a secluded place.

Andrey’s fear was so great that even his mother, who always cared for her daughter much more than about her son, noticed his condition and asked if he was sick. A little later this story was forgotten by everyone – three days later this girl came to visit her sister Chikatilo as if nothing had happened, and Chikatilo himself several decades later during interrogation called this day no more, no less than the day of her fall.

Nonverbal communication

An investigator from the prosecutor’s office Amurkhan Yandiyev, who familiarized himself in detail with this page of Chikatilo’s life, said:

– Imagine: a country boy came to Moscow with a suitcase of books, there are no acquaintances in the city, he lived at the station, there he prepared for the next exam, went to the university and passed it well. Amazing commitment. And suddenly he discovers that he is not in the lists of enrolled. Imagine how he timidly went to the chairman of the selection committee to find out what was wrong. Of course, he did not raise a scandal due to the fact that those who have passed are worse credited, but he does not. He asked, he was answered: “I did not pass through the competition.” Silently turned and left. Already at home, the headmaster of the school explained to him gruffly, ingenuously: “You are a fool, that you went to enroll in general. Your father is a traitor … ”

Not having passed the competition at the Law Faculty of Moscow State University, Chikatilo, arriving home, enters the Akhtyr School and after a year successfully finishes it by receiving the specialty supervisor of telephone and telegraph lines. In 1955, he left for the Komsomol trip to the Northern Urals, where he worked at the linear-technical communications center.

Awkward, lanky 18-year-old romantic first encountered the wrong side of Soviet life – deaf taiga places, housing in barracks, a team of poorly educated adult proletarians, half of whom are hiding from justice … And a 35-year-old divorced woman from affection for men in the Russian zyantsovskoy remote

Direct speech. Andrey Chikatilo

“… I moved to the apartment to Maria. She was the initiator of the resettlement … from the very first day she began to cuddle up to me with her breasts, with her whole body. The first night she went to bed with me, I was very worried. She herself took off my underwear and began to cuddle up to me, stroking the whole body with her hands. But all her efforts were in vain, I was so worried that excitement did not come. So she tormented me all night … In the morning I didn’t go to work, the guys noticed it, began to joke, they say, the woman tortured you, gave different advice on what to do, how and where to caress her. I blushed and went away. In the evening I wanted to go back to the hut, but the guys pushed me out, said that I spent the night closely with me. I again went to Mary. She lay down with me again, told me not to be shy. But again, it ended in nothing … I was as paralyzed by the memories of the daily ridicule of my comrades. So I fell asleep. The next day at work they paid me less attention, only a few elderly men continued to give advice. About a week later, conversations on this topic stopped altogether, I began to calm down. And on the ninth day I decided … as usual, we went to bed, I began to touch different parts of her body. Mary began to help me, and it turned out fine … I was about to marry her, but my comrades talked me out, she was 16 years older than me … ”

After a whole series of unsuccessful attempts to have sexual intercourse, he first appeared to have periods of low mood, as Chikatilo himself said, if earlier he was usually vigorous, cheerful, purposeful, then from 18-19 years of age he often began to think about his inferiority, he was worried that he is “not like the others,” sometimes thoughts of suicide arose. He continued to study a lot, entered the correspondence department of the Moscow Electromechanical Institute. Admission to the university was evaluated as a rematch for his unsuccessful life. Despite periodic mood swings, he remained active, believed he had to devote his life to building communism. He fought against injustice, wrote complaints if he encountered any shortcomings or cases of improper attitude to himself.

Excerpt from the expert opinion of the commission of the Institute of General and Forensic Psychiatry. Serbian

At puberty (puberty)

In adolescence, after unsuccessful attempts at sexual contact with women, affective disturbances are formed with a predominance of depressive mood and recurring suicidal tendencies, and there is an increase in pathocharacterological features, deepening of isolation, anxiety, vulnerability, and an increase in sensitivity to real or perceived infringement of his rights, during this period, the beginning of its pleasing activities. Fantasies during this period are characterized by a predominance of distinct sado-masochistic manifestations.

However, in adolescence and young age, despite the presence of these disorders, there are no signs of social maladjustment, but the low level of heterosexual adaptation attracts attention, which is manifested in a decrease in sexual desire, erectile insufficiency, and pallor of orgasmic experiences. Erotic fantasy with a distinct sadomasochistic coloring, characteristic of that period, takes the form of surrogate sexual activity.

In the army, as in the school, Chikatilo achieved undoubted success in military and political training, being the editor of the newspaper, a propagandist. He also considered a major achievement the entry into the ranks of the Communist Party. This event, significant for Chikatilo, also occurred while serving in the army in 1959.

At the same time, he still cannot find himself in communication. When colleagues offered to acquaint him with some woman, he refused, preferring to read socio-political literature and listen to the radio. He suffered because of the ridicule of his comrades about the female waist and chest, he was very embarrassed about this, but in the army he had the first passive homosexual contacts, according to him violent. Occasionally he masturbated, with no erection of the penis, ejaculation restrained, because he believed that it was harmful.

Direct speech. A.O. Bukhanovsky

A normal person has two communication systems: verbal and non-verbal. And in an informal setting, the non-verbal system is often the main one. Well, for example: a woman says “no” to you, but in her intonation and behavior you catch “yes”. For sadists, such shades are not available, they are capable only of formal communication skills. Moreover, in a normal, formal situation, they are no different from us.

Here is the same Chikatilo: in the army he was one of the best. He even joined the party there. And in an informal situation, when communication takes place on a non-verbal level, when intuition is needed, such people do not understand what is happening, they become as if weak-minded, and they are acutely aware of this inferiority. And because of these informal situations, they carefully avoid. In the army, when everyone was going to leave – to dance, to the girls, – Chikatilo went to Lenin’s room and was engaged in “political training”. But compensation did not come – on the contrary: the painful condition intensified.

These people have no self-defense skills. In childhood and adolescence, they were the targets of peer violence, although physically they are often stronger than those who offended them. But they cannot protect themselves. There was an inferiority complex, low self-esteem, which over the years has intensified. Their sexual constitution is weak, difficulties in communicating with women further reinforce the inferiority complex.

After being transferred to the reserve, Chikatilo returned to his native village Yablochnoye.

Next to the parents’ house, new neighbors settled, Tatiana turned out to be one of the neighbors, who recently drove out her husband’s drunkard. Very soon, an acquaintance of Andrew and Tatiana. Externally, Chikatilo has changed a lot, as it almost always happens after the army.

Direct speech. Andrey Chikatilo

“… about a week later I began to touch her, took her hands and even kissed her. My kiss was dry in my throat, my head was clouded, my heart beat fast, she responded to my kisses. But at the same time, I couldn’t force myself to force myself to enter into intimate intimacy with her, because I was afraid that I would fail and I would disgrace myself in front of her … “

But then he decided. The moment was convenient, there was no one in the house, and the story of Maria five years ago was repeated – the inadequacy of the preparation, the discord in sensations, and even the old fear – FEAR BEFORE FAILURE.

Direct speech. Andrey Chikatilo

“… excitement did not give me any excitement, she apparently understood my condition, calmed me, tried to excite, however, despite all the efforts, the sexual act did not work, and I just soaked my underwear … I was ashamed of my weakness, Especially since I saw her discontent. A few days I did not show her eyes … “

Then after a couple of weeks there was another attempt at a rapprochement, this time in a grove, past which they walked out of the guests, and again a failure. And as Chikatilo said, he was “very angry and he wanted to destroy everything.”

Direct speech. Tatyana Narizhnaya

… In the village of Yablochnoe, not far from us lived the Chikatilo family. I made friends with my peer from this house, Tanya. Her brother Chikatilo Andrew studied in Moscow. When he arrived for the holidays, we met him and began to meet, it lasted for a month and a half. Andrei was affectionate, kind … Once at my house they decided to get in touch with him, but Andrei did not succeed. Another time we went to his relatives in the village of Mayskoye. On the way to the meadow, Andrew again made an attempt … But he did not succeed again.

One detail is interesting – Tatiana Chikatilo also wanted to get married first. Maybe an impulse was punching from the depths of consciousness that pushed him on the right path – calmly, calmly, everything ahead. Thousands of men keep in their memory their own youthful failures of this kind, which does not prevent them from starting a family in adulthood, to live a full life. But the fate of this marriage was also vetoed, and the parents, who were categorically against his possible marriage to the “divorced woman”, “helped” as well. And this love of Andrei Chikatilo gradually faded into the past.

So, the world familiar to Chikatilo collapsed, his dreams were not destined to come true, but he did not hang himself, although, as he said in his later interviews, he was quite ready to climb into a noose of despair, he decided to leave …

“First Life” Chikatilo, the first part of his novel full of failures, fears and disappointments is over. He leaves his native village Yablochnoye to start a completely different life …

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