Infusions prepare their loose small LSR: grass, flowers, leaves. The exception is rhizomes with valerian roots, as they contain essential oils and prolonged infusion will lead to volatilization of essential oils.
Broths are prepared from more dense raw materials: bark, roots, rhizomes. The exception is dense and leathery leaves of bearberry, lingonberry, eucalyptus – from them prepare broths.
Broth Cito! do not prepare, as there is no complete extraction.
6. The pH of the extractant
The pH value of the extractant is especially important for infusions and decoctions made from raw materials containing alkaloids. Acidification of water contributes to the conversion of hardly soluble compounds of alkaloids (complexes with tannins, salts of hardly soluble organic acids) into easily soluble salts of alkaloids. For this purpose, citric, tartaric and hydrochloric (in terms of hydrogen chloride) acids are added in an amount equal to the number of alkaloids contained in the sample of the raw material taken (see the private technology of aqueous extracts from alkaloids).
7. Effect of enzymes and microorganisms
Enzymes and microorganisms activate their action at a certain temperature and humidity of the environment. They can decompose LF. In order to minimize this effect, LSR must be well dried. If the water extraction is heated in a water bath at a temperature below 100 ° C, this will not ensure the sterility of LF,
The use of preservatives in aqueous extracts is not justified, since they have a detrimental effect not only on microorganisms, but also have a detrimental effect on humans.
In order to speed up the extraction process, it is necessary to maintain the maximum possible concentration difference inside and outside the plant cell by periodically feeding "fresh" portions of the extractant before the onset of a state of equilibrium, that is, when the concentration of substances in the cell and outside it will become the same and diffusion will stop. This is achieved by mixing a mixture of LSR and extractant. Based on this, the GF prescribes in the manufacture of infusions and decoctions the infusion of LRS should be carried out with stirring.
Registration of water extracts for vacation:
- Store in a cool place (as exposed microbial spoilage)
- Shake before use (as the system is polydisperse (multicomponent))
Rules for making infusions and decoctions
A feature of the calculations and the preparation of water extracts is that the raw material, when insisting on a water bath, absorbs a certain amount of water, which is retained in it even after squeezing. Therefore, to prepare the prescribed volume of water extraction, water is calculated using the coefficient of water absorption (Kv / n) or using the expenditure coefficient (Kp, only for Althea roots). Ap / p shows how much fluid is delayed 1.0 VRS after it is released. Kv / p can be found in the tables of the GF X or the GF XI, or in the order number 308 Appendix No. 13:
Stages of preparation of water extracts:
1. Grinding of LSR (The basic rule is to grind without residue. Grinding degree – see the GF private articles on LSR)
2. Screening of raw materials from dust (theoretically).
3. The weighed raw material is placed in a preheated infusion, filled with the calculated amount of purified water at room temperature, as boiling water causes protein coagulation and mucus growth — at room temperature, the protein slowly swells and dissolves as the temperature rises, evenly distributed in the extractant.
6. Percolation through a double layer of gauze into a cylinder or stand.
7. Squeezing the remaining mass in the cylinder or stand.
In the manufacture of infusions and decoctions it is prohibited to replace the LRS with tinctures, essential oils or extracts that are not intended for the preparation of aqueous extracts (Order No. 308 of the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation).
Private technology of water extraction
– the grass of thermopsis – the herb belladonna – the grass henbane – the grass of the dope – the shoots of ephedra – the horns of ergot, etc.
a) Standard raw materials are used or calculated by the formula:
b) The extraction process is affected by the pH of the extractor. Alkaloids in raw materials may be contained in the form of salts and in the form of bases. Alkaloids-salts are soluble in water, and alkaloids-bases are not. To dissolve them, the extractor must be acidified. Acidification is carried out by adding 0.83% solution of hydrochloric acid (HCl). Acids take by weight as much as the alkaloids contain in pure form in the taken LSR.
Datura leaves – List B (WFD = 0.2; IRR = 0.6)
PE = 200/10 = 20
Datura leaves = 2.0
Doses are not overestimated.
The standard raw material for the GF XI must contain at least 0.25% alkaloids. Find out how much alkaloids contain in its pure form 2.0 raw materials:
Thus, it is required to take 0,005 pure hydrogen chloride. We calculate the amount of 0.83% hydrochloric acid solution required for the preparation of the infusion:
That is, to completely remove all the alkaloids contained in 2.0 leaves of the dope, you must take 0.6 ml of the p-ra HCl 1:10 (0.83%). HCl is added to the equipment before it is placed in a water bath.
NB: If the raw materials are non-standard, then the amount of HCl will not change!
a) Thermopsis grass does not need acidification of the extractant, since the alkaloids are in it in the form of salts (Prof. Ants).
b) Horns of ergot insist on a water bath for 30 minutes and artificially cooled, as they are thermolabile.
– foxglove leaves – lily of the valley leaves – adonis grass, etc.
a) Standard raw materials are used, or recalculations are made. The activity of the raw materials is indicated in the workbook.
b) When insisting, it is necessary to observe the extraction mode. If you increase the time or temperature during extraction, then the cardiac glycosides will be destroyed, as they contain an etheric grouping in their composition (it is impossible to open the infundirka).
3. Water extraction from raw materials containing tannins:
– the bark of the oak – the rhizomes of the cinquefoil – the rhizomes of the coil – the rhizomes and the roots of the burnet – the rhizomes of bergenia, etc.
a) Raw materials are dense, so cook the broths. The exception is lingonberry leaves, bearberry, since the main active ingredient is arbutin, which is associated with tannins.
b) Tannins are well soluble in hot water; when cooled, they precipitate, so water extracts are filtered immediately hot, without insisting at room temperature.
c) Raw materials cannot be infused with the use of metal objects, since tannates of heavy metals are formed.
4. Water extracts from raw materials containing antraglycosides:
– rhubarb root – buckthorn bark – senna leaves – fruits of Zhostera, etc.
a) Prepare broths. Only in the form of decoction can be extracted antraglycosides.
b) It is necessary to strictly observe the temperature and time of cooking.
c) Water extraction is filtered hot without infusion (see tanning substances). An exception is decoction of senna leaves. It is completely cooled, as the resin that does not cause side effects should not pass into the hood.
5. Water extracts from raw materials containing essential oils:
– rhizomes with valerian roots – mint leaves, sage – chamomile flowers, etc.
a) From this raw material only infusions are prepared.
b) Prepared in a tightly closed infunirka (so that essential oils do not evaporate).
c) Raw materials are not mixed when insisting.
g) Infusion filter after complete cooling, so that there is no loss of active substances.
6. Water extraction from raw materials containing saponins:
– licorice root – the root of senega, istog, etc.
a) Prepare always a decoction.
b) The extractor must have an alkaline reaction, so if soda (NaHCO3) is written out in the recipe, then it is added to the infusion set to the raw materials and the extractor, and it is infused. If the soda is not discharged in the recipe, then it is added in the calculation of 1.0 NaHCO3 per 10.0 of raw materials.
Multicomponent water extracts
1. From LSR, requiring a single plan insist. In this case, LRS insists in a single infunirka and uses one infusion mode.
2. Multicomponent water extracts from LSR, requiring a multifaceted mode of infusion. In this case, extracts are prepared separately. The amount of the extractor – water – at the same time should be as much as possible (not less than ten times the quantity relative to the weight of VLS, taking into account Kv / p)
A decoction of viburnum bark is prepared separately. To do this, we need to obtain 10 ml of extract from 1.0 bark, since viburnum bark belongs to the general list.
25.0 x 10 = 250 ml
To get 250 ml of water extraction, you need to take 250 + 25.0 x 2 ml / g = 300 ml of water.
To get the infusion, you need to determine its volume: 800 ml – 250 ml = 550 ml.
To do this, take: 550 + 8.0 x 2.2 + 20.0 x 2 + 20.0 x 3 = 673 ml of water.
In one preheated infundirku we place 25.0 crushed viburnum bark and 300 ml of water at room temperature and put in a water bath for 30 minutes, insist at room temperature for 10 minutes. After this, we filter into the cylinder, press and, if necessary, adjust with purified water to 250 ml.
In another pre-warmed infundirku we place 8.0 rhizomes with valerian roots, 20.0 motherwort grass and 20.0 mother-and-stepmother leaves and pour 673 ml of purified water at room temperature. Insist on a water bath for 15 minutes, at room temperature for 45 minutes. After that, we filter into the cylinder, squeeze and, if necessary, adjust with purified water to 550 ml.
Dosage forms containing water extracts from raw materials and solid medicinal substances soluble in water
- Do not use concentrated solutions of medicinal substances.
- Medicinal substances dissolved in the finished water extraction algorithm mixtures
- Water extract filter in the stand through a double layer of gauze and squeeze the raw material. After the medicinal substances are dissolved in it, they are filtered through a dry cotton swab into the cylinder and, if necessary, brought to the prescribed volume of the aqueous extract with purified water through pressed raw material.
- In aqueous extracts, as in mixtures, the amount of solids soluble in water, that is, Cmax and% of solids, is taken into account.
Vo = 200 ml + 6 ml = 206 ml
PE = 206/15 = 13
Analgin, list B, WFD = 1.0, IRR = 3.0
RD = 5.0 / 13 = 0.38
RD = 5.0 / 13 x 3 = 1.14
Doses are not overestimated.
x = 6.3% > 3% => affects input
Water inputs = 200 + 20.0 x 2.0 (motherwort) – (5.0 x 0.68 (analgin) + 4.0 x 0.27 (potassium bromide) + 4.0 x 0.26 (sodium bromide) ) = 234.5 ml of water
We put on the water bath infundirku, warm up 15 minutes. Groundwort grass is ground to 7 mm, put into infusion equipment and pour 234 ml of purified water at room temperature. We put in a water bath for 15 minutes, then insist at room temperature for 45 minutes, with occasional stirring.
Strain into the stand through a double layer of gauze and squeeze. We weighed 5.0 analgin, dissolved, weighed 4.0 potassium bromide, dissolved, weighed 4.0 sodium bromide, dissolved. Strain through a dry cotton swab into a cylinder and, if necessary, bring it up to 200 ml with purified water through pressed raw material. Transfer to a vial for tempering, add 6 ml of valerian tincture. We cork and make out.
Technology of water extraction using concentrated extracts
Water extracts from extracts-concentrates are prepared much faster. They are always the same, as concentrated extracts are standardized. In the manufacture of aqueous extracts from extracts, concentrates, you can use concentrated solutions of medicinal substances. If the doctor prescribes water extraction from the raw materials, and in the pharmacy there is a concentrated extract of this raw material, then it is easier and faster to use the extract extract. But in this case, on the back of the recipe, you need to indicate what is prepared from the concentrate extract (the extract extract and its quantity are written in Latin). This is done in order not to mislead the patient, as the water extracted from the LSR and from the concentrated extract is different in color.
The pharmacy uses two types of extracts, concentrates:
- Dry extracts-concentrates – Extracta sicca standartizata. They are prepared in the factory and used in the ratio of 1: 1 in relation to LSR. For example: extract of thermopsis, grass adonis spring, Althea root.
- Concentrated liquid extracts – Extracta fluida standartizata. Also prepared in the factory (extraction with a weak solution of ethanol 20-40%). Prepared in a ratio of 1: 2, that is, it must be taken twice as much as LSR according to the recipe.
Aqueous extracts prepared using extracts, concentrates, stored by order of the Ministry of health of the Russian Federation No. 214 by the general rules.
- Concentrated extract take as much as LSR
- When calculating the% of dry water-soluble substances, the dry extract-concentrate is also taken into account, since it is soluble in water.
- Dry extracts-concentrates are dissolved in water in the first place, regardless of the list of other substances, since the dissolution stage requires swelling (5-15 minutes). They form solutions of infinitely swelling high molecular weight substances. The exception is the concentrated extracts of thermopsis herb – it can easily be dissolved in a soda solution (if it is written in the recipe) without a swelling stage.
- They are taken twice as much as prescribed
- When calculating water, you must subtract the volume of liquid concentrate extract
- Liquid concentrate extract is added by order No. 308 as a finished liquid drug, given that it contains 20-40% alcohol
Mucous water extracts
Shelf life – 2 days (order of the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation No. 214)
These aqueous extracts are prepared at room temperature:
– cold infusion method (slime of the root of Althea)
method of shaking with hot water (mucus flax seeds; quince mucus, etc.)
The consistency of mucus are thick, viscous liquids that are hygroscopic sols. They are incompatible with alcohols, acids, alkalis, tannin and certain other substances.
All mucus is a natural high-molecular compounds, which are used in medicine as swelling, emollient, enveloping averages in the form of mixtures and enemas. Some mucus is used as emulsifiers (mucus starch, salep). In the formulation of pharmacies two mucus – mucus of the root of Althea and mucus of flax seeds. They are prepared out of temperature.
Mucus must be made out with an additional label. "keep in a cool place"as quickly exposed to microbial deterioration and label "shake before use"because the system is polydisperse.
Althea roots contain 35% mucus and 37% starch (ballast).
1. Prepare cold infusion at room temperature.
2. Infusion time at room temperature – 30 minutes with constant stirring in a conventional glass stand.
3. After extracting, the water extract is not squeezed and squeezed out, since when squeezing the starch and scraps of plant cells pass into the extract.
4. When calculating water and raw materials use the expenditure ratio (Kp). It shows the ratio of the amount of mucus that should be obtained to the amount that it turns out to be real, because the infusion will be less. That is, Kp shows how many times it is necessary to increase the amount of raw materials and the extractor in order to get the prescribed amount of mucus of necessary concentration. Cr bred by experience.
For example: according to the recipe, you need to take 5.0 root of althea and get 100 ml of mucus. When insisting get 75-77 ml of mucus. To get 100 ml of mucus water you need to take 1.3 times more (100/76), but in this case, the mucus is obtained by diluting. To its concentration was 5%, take the root of Althea 5 x 1.3 = 6.5; and water 100 x 1.3 = 130 ml.
Adj. No. 4 p. No. 308
Expenditure coefficients for the manufacture of infusion of Althea roots of different concentrations:
1% – 1.05, 2% – 1.10, 3% – 1.15, 4% – 1.20, 5% – 1.30
If the recipe does not indicate the ratio of the roots of Althea and the water extract, then prepare 1:20, that is 5%.
If a different ratio of Althea root and Infusion is written in the recipe, which is given in the order and there is no Cr, then the expenditure ratio is calculated using the formula: Cr = 100 / (100 – (nx 4.6)), where n is the amount of Althea root per 100 ml hoods
For example: if the recipe is written out Infusi radices Althaeae ex 6,0 – 180 ml
Cu = 100 / (100 – (3.3 x 4.6)) = 1.18
That is, to prepare this mucus you need to take 6.0 x 1.18 = 7.08 Althea root and 180 x 1.18 = 212.4 ml of water.
Grind the Althea root to 7 mm, weigh 7.08, place it in a stand, pour 212.4 ml of room temperature water. Cover the stand with parchment paper (to protect against dust) and insist at room temperature for 30 minutes with occasional stirring. Strain into the cylinder through a double layer of gauze without squeezing. If necessary, through gauze with raw materials bring water up to 180 ml, corked and make out.
Flax seeds contain 6% mucus and 35% fatty oil. The mucus is in the epidermis of the seed coat, and it is removed very quickly. Fatty oils are a ballast substance, they can rancid and give the medicinal form a bad unpleasant taste and smell. To avoid this, do not use crushed seeds, so that fatty oils are not extracted.
Slime is prepared 1:30, unless otherwise indicated. When calculating water, Kp, Kv / n is not used as the raw material does not absorb water.
Mucus is obtained by agitating seeds with hot water (at least 95 ° C), while the bottle must be of a much larger volume, properly sealed, and so that the water does not cool for a long time, the bottle is wrapped in a towel. Shake by hand for 15 minutes. After shaking, the mucus is passed through two layers of gauze into a vial for tempering.
Water-soluble drugs dissolved in the finished mucus. Water-insoluble medicinal substances are administered in the form of suspensions with ready-made mucus. Liquid drugs administered by the algorithm.