These are fruits of predominantly trees or shrubs that grow along with the shell, including soft. The value of such products lies in the fact that they are 50–60% of fat, and useful, unsaturated. Such substances reduce the level of “harmful” cholesterol and protect the heart and blood vessels. In addition, nuts contain polyunsaturated fatty acids, which are necessary for the brain to work (these are still only in fish and seeds).
For health, it is enough to eat 5 nuts daily.
Peanuts (peanuts) – one-year low grassy plants of the legume family, growing in countries with warm and humid climates. A peanut flower on a long stalk appears from the bosom at the base of the stem of a leaf attached to the stem. The yellow flower of a peanut blossoms only one day. After pollination, the ovary is formed, and the long pedicel begins to gradually descend to the ground. The ovary of the future fetus reaches the soil and digs into the ground. There and ripen peanuts.
This is one of the largest tree nuts. Bertoletii fruits have a round or oval shape with a solid woody shell. The sizes of fruits reach 10-15 cm in diameter and 1-2 kg by weight. Inside the nut contains from 8 to 24 kernels with a thin leathery skin and delicious pulp inside. After pollination, the nuclei mature within 14 months. They go into use.
Rogul, Chilim floating (lat. Trapa natans) annual plant growing in water. Flexible stem attached to the bottom last year nuts, as an anchor. When the water level rises, the stem breaks away from the ground and becomes free-floating until it takes root again in shallow water. Water chestnut is known since ancient times – its shells are even in the excavations of the interglacial period. Earlier, Chilim was also extremely popular in Russia – it was sold on the markets by whole wagons.
The tree of the nut family, with a height of 4 to 25 m and more, the trunk diameter reaches 1.5 m. Crohn is dense, wide-round. The leaves are large, up to 20–40 cm long, nonparticularly complex, falling for the winter, fragrant (from the essential oil). Fruits – greece nuts – have a thick leathery-fibrous peel and strong bone; at maturity, the skin of the fruit, drying out, bursts into 2 parts and separates by itself, the stone does not open by itself.
There are about 30 types of these trees or shrubs. Long since it is divorced for the sake of fruits, sometimes it reaches a deep age, up to 1000 years. The wood is very durable; it goes to the barrel and joinery. The mealy and sweetish fruits of chestnut are a subject of trade in southern countries. Now you can buy different varieties of chestnuts, but the most popular Christmas variety is sweet chestnuts. They are grown in many parts of the world, but be careful not to try ornamental varieties growing on the streets.
The generic name of the seeds of several species of plants from the genus Pine, the so-called cedar pines, which give edible seeds. In Russia, Siberian pine (Pinus sibirica) is the most commonly cedar nut in Russia. Pine nuts are small, pale yellow kernels with a bright taste, they are almost always sold peeled from the shell. The savory taste of pine nuts becomes brighter if you fry them when they begin to release oil.
Evergreen heat-loving tree, Sumakhov family. Homeland cashew – Brazil and other countries in South America. But thanks to the excellent taste qualities of its fruits, cashew has become widespread and nowadays it is grown in almost all countries of the world with a warm climate. The largest cashew exporters are Brazil, India, Indonesia, Nigeria, Vietnam, Thailand, as well as the countries of Central and South America. Cashew fruit consists of two parts: the fruit itself, the so-called cashew apple, and a nut in a hard shell attached to the top of the fruit.
Large, round fruit of coconut palm with a hard fleece, thin brown skin, white flesh, which is eaten fresh or dried, in the form of flakes or in a grated form. In a good coconut milk must necessarily splash, it is well heard. Coconut, a plant of the Palm family (Arecaeaceae) and the only species of the genus Cocos. Do not forget that coconut is a good laxative.
Cola nut grows on an evergreen beautiful tree, which belongs to the Staculia plants. It can reach a height of 20 meters, and looks something like a chestnut. This tree begins to bear fruit only in the tenth year and gives about 40 kilograms of nuts per year. The fruit is quite large and can be as long as about 5 cm. Each of them contains almost ten rose-smelling seeds, which are cola nuts. Initially, these seeds may seem bitter, although you quickly get used to their taste. It is worth noting that the fruits contain three times more caffeine than coffee beans.
high-calorie australian nut. This type of nut is considered the most expensive in the world, because it is difficult to grow, it is prone to attacks by pests, and the tree itself begins to bear fruit only in the year 8-10. Macadamia ripens under the hot sun for 6-7 months. The ripe nut has a spherical shape and a diameter of 1.5-2 cm. The core is covered with a hard-to-remove leathery green-brown shell. In the factory for the removal of the shell using an automatic line with two rollers. The distance between the shafts is specially made smaller than the average size of the nut; as a result, the shell bursts and crumbles, and the kernels remain intact and move for further processing.
Shrub or small tree from the subgenus Almond (Amygdalus) of the Plum genus. Almonds are often ranked as nuts, although in reality it is a stone fruit. The size and shape of the almond is similar to the peach pit. Almond grows on rocky and gravelly slopes at an altitude of 800 to 1600 m above sea level (Bukhara almond comes up to 2500 m), prefers calcium-rich soil. It grows in small groups of 3-4 individuals, separated from one another by 5-7 meters.
This is the core of the bony part of the nutmeg fruit, which grows for almost 100 years, and actively bears fruit only for the first 40 years. In one fruitful year, the plant can produce more than 10 thousand fruits that have the color and size of a large apricot. When fully ripe, the fruits burst in half. The nut itself is nothing more than a seed inside the seed, and to separate it, the seed is first dried in the sun and then cleaned from the tree shell.
The tree is a kind of caria, a nut family. The height of this tree can reach 50 m and more, and its diameter is up to 2.5 m. North America is considered the birthplace of pecan, where it has long been cultivated for the sake of fruits (“nuts” with tasty nutritious seeds). In the USSR, pecans were cultivated in small areas, mainly in
These are the seeds of the Italian pine of the same name, which are located in the cones. On the branches, they are arranged in brushes of 1-3 pieces. Nuts ripen in the third year of growth in October, and by the beginning of spring all the seeds fall out. Therefore, harvesting the pine begins in late October – early November. Nuts have an oblong oval shape, dark brown in color with small bright specks. The shell is much stronger than the shell of cedar seeds, so they should be peeled by hand with the help of a walnut tree or industrially with a conveyor with closely spaced rollers. Cultivated pine in the Caucasus and Crimea. The main world exporters of pine nuts are Portugal, Spain, Tunisia, Italy and Turkey.
A small genus of evergreen or deciduous trees or shrubs of the Sumach family, distributed in subtropical, partly tropical areas of the Old and New Worlds. Pistachios are common in the Mediterranean, Northeast Africa, West, Middle and East Asia. Pistachio trees are divided into male and female. Flowers collected in panicles. The fruit is a stone fruit, containing an elongated seed (nut in culinary value, but not botanical) with a hard, whitish skin and a light green core with a characteristic odor.
Fruits of large hazelnut, or Lombard nut. The leaves are rounded or broadly oval, 12 x 10 cm, with a heart-shaped base, with a sharp, short top, hairy below the veins, twice serrated along the edge, with soft-petioles, lanceolate stipules. The fruit (nut) is surrounded by a long ply. The core is 25-63% of the nut mass. The filbert is used in food, in the confectionery industry and for receiving oil. The main producers of hazelnuts are Mediterranean countries. Plant up to 10 m tall with gray branches, densely glandular-pubescent annual shoots.