The feet are the parts of the lower limb that perform very important functions, providing support for the body when standing and walking. Together with other parts of the body, they are directly involved in the movement of the body in space. At the same time, this part of the lower limbs performs spring functions, providing a softening of the jolts when walking, running, jumping, as well as the balancing function – the regulation of a person’s posture while performing movements. All these functions performed and caused the special anatomy of the feet.
The foot is a very complex part of the human body, consisting of 26 bones connected by 33 joints and reinforced by numerous muscles, ligaments, tendons and cartilage.
The 26 bones of the foot are divided into 3 sections: the fingers, the metatarsus and the tarsus.
Each toe consists of 3 phalanges. The only exception is the thumb or the first finger, which has only 2 phalanges. Quite often, the phalanxes of the little finger are fused together, with the result that it also consists of 2 phalanges.
The phalanges, which are connected to the metatarsal bones of the foot, are called proximal, followed by the middle and then the distal ones. The bones that form the fingers have short bodies.
At the base of the thumb on the plantar side there are additional sesamoid-shaped bones, which increase the transverse vaulting of the metatarsus.
This section of the foot consists of 5 short tubular metatarsal stones. Each of them consists of a triangular body, base and head. The first metatarsal is the thickest, and the second is the longest.
The heads of these bones are used to connect with the proximal phalanges, and the bases with tarsal bones. In addition, the lateral articular surfaces of the base of the metatarsal stones are interconnected.
The area of the head of the first metatarsal bone is an active participant in the development of valgus deformity of the big toe. During this process, a bone growth occurs on the outer edge of the metatarsal bone, which squeezes the tissue and deforms the joint, resulting in severe pain and gait disturbances.
In addition, it is the first metatarsophalangeal joint that is most susceptible to arthrosis.
In this section of the foot contains the largest number of different bones, which are located in 2 rows: proximal and distal.
The proximal row consists of the talus and calcaneus. The distal row consists of 3 cuneiform bones, cuboid and scaphoid.
The structure of the talus secrete body, neck and head. It is this bone that connects the foot with the bones of the tibia in one common mechanism. This joint is called the ankle.
The calcaneus is located behind and below the ram. This is the largest bone of the foot, consisting of the body and the mound. The calcaneus is combined with the ankle bone above and with the cuboid bone with its anterior part. In some cases, spike-like growth, known as the “heel spur”, may occur on the calcaneus. This is accompanied by severe pain and gait disturbance.
Cuboid bone forms the outer edge of the foot. It is articulated with the 4th and 5th metatarsal bones, heel, outer sphenoid and scaphoid. Below it is the groove with the tendon of the peroneus muscle.
Scaphoid forms the inner side of the foot. It connects with the talus, sphenoid and cuboid bones.
The wedge-shaped bones (lateral, medial and intermediate) are placed in front of the navicular bone and are connected to it. They also connect with metatarsal bones and between themselves.
The bones of the foot are joined together by joints, which ensure its mobility.
One of the main joints of the foot is the ankle. It connects the foot with the shin of the foot. This joint has a block structure and is formed by the joint of the talus and the bones of the tibia. The ankle is securely fastened with ligaments on all sides.
The ankle provides plantar and dorsal flexion (movement of the foot around the transverse axis).
Damage to this joint causes severe pain. Movement because of this becomes difficult or even impossible. In this case, body weight is transferred to a healthy leg, resulting in lameness. If you do not start the timely treatment of the problem, then persistent violations of the mechanics of movement of both limbs are possible.
In the area of this joint, sprains and tears of the ligaments quite often occur. Synovitis of the ankle joint may also develop as a result of impaired pronation.
No less important is the subtalar joint, which forms the calcaneus and the ankle bones. This joint has a cylindrical, slightly resembling a spiral-shaped structure. It provides turning the foot in and out (pronation). Around the joint there is a thin capsule and small ligaments.
In case of violation of the pronation of this joint, the foot receives additional loads when performing its functions, which is fraught with dislocations and sprains.
This joint in importance is on a par with the subtalane, as they can compensate for the dysfunction of each other. If this compensation is observed for a long time, then the joints are much more likely to wear out, which leads to their pathologies.
From the name of this joint it is clear which bones of the foot form it. This joint has a spherical structure and provides supination and pronation of the foot.
These joints form a solid base of the foot, as they are practically immobile due to the strengthening with numerous ligaments. They are formed by a combination of metatarsal bones with cuneiform and cuboid bones.
These spherical joints have little mobility and provide extensor and flexor movements of the fingers. They are formed by the basics of the proximal phalanges of the fingers and the heads of the metatarsal bones.
Due to the fact that the joint, which is formed by the phalanx of the thumb and the head of the first metatarsal bone, is experiencing the greatest strain on body weight, it is most susceptible to various pathologies. So this particular joint undergoes gout, arthritis, radiculitis and
These joints provide connection of the phalanges of the fingers among themselves. They have a block-like structure and are involved in the flexion and extension of the fingers.
Arch of the foot
The foot absorbs all loads during running, jumping, walking due to a special vaulted structure. There are 2 arch of the foot – longitudinal and transverse. The longitudinal arch contributes to the fact that the foot rests on the surface is not the entire area, but only the heads of the metatarsal bones and the heel cusp.
If the normal operation of the ligaments and muscles of the foot is disturbed, the shape of the foot changes with a decrease in its arches. This leads to such a disease as flat feet. At the same time, the foot loses its spring functions and the spine and other leg joints get a load when moving. This leads to more rapid “wear” of the joints and spine, the appearance of pain and associated diseases.
Muscles of the foot
The movement of the foot provides 19 muscles located in the lower part of the leg. On the sole there are 3 muscle groups. One group is responsible for the mobility of the thumb, the second – for the mobility of the little finger, and the third – for the movement of all the toes. The fibers of these muscles are directly involved in the maintenance of the arches of the foot, and also provide spring functions.
The back of the foot consists of 2 muscles that are also involved in maintaining the movement of the fingers.
All other muscles that are attached to the bones of the foot, but begin from the bones of the leg, belong to the muscles of the leg, although they take part in the movements of the foot.
With overvoltage or strong muscle relaxation, a change in the position of the bones and reliability of the foot joints is possible. As a result, various pathological conditions can occur.
Ligaments are known to be inelastic, thick, flexible fibers surrounding and supporting joints. With bumps and injuries of the legs, pain and swelling are most often provoked by stretched or torn ligaments.
Tendons are strong, elastic fibers that secure the muscles to the bones. When stretching the muscles to the limit, it is the tendons that take the stretching force on themselves. If excessive stretching occurs, an inflammation of the tendons develops, called tendonitis.
The nutrition of the foot is provided by 2 main arteries: the posterior tibial artery and the dorsal artery of the foot. They are divided into smaller arteries and saturate the tissues of the foot with oxygen. Back to the heart, veins carry blood. they are connected to the arteries by small capillaries. Among the veins secrete superficial and deep. The body’s longest vein originates from the big toe and is called the great saphenous vein.
Due to the fact that the blood vessels of the foot are the most distant, it is in them that the circulatory disorders most frequently occur. This can lead to arteriosclerosis, atherosclerosis, varicose veins, swelling of the legs and
Of course, the functioning of the foot is impossible without nerves. Here are the main 4 nerves: sural, posterior tibial, deep peroneal and superficial peroneal.
Often, it is in this section of the legs that squeezing and pinching of the nerves occur.
Such a complex structure and large loads that fall on them daily, lead to their frequent diseases. At the risk of their occurrence are all people, regardless of age and gender. But most of all, athletes and people whose work involves large permanent loads on their legs are prone to foot diseases.
Diseases of the feet occur with severe symptoms and pain, so they cause a lot of discomfort and discomfort. There is a huge amount of them. Here are some of the most common ones: flat feet, arthritis, arthrosis, heel spurs, plantar fasciitis, bursitis, deformity of the metatarsal bones, dislocations, sprains, spinal cord fractures, bone fractures, osteochondropathy, tendinitis, soft tissue inflammation, hooked fingers , corns, blood vessel lesions, nerve injuries and many others.
Prevent the development of the disease is much easier than to treat it. Therefore, preventive recommendations do not interfere with anyone:
- systematic hygienic procedures should be provided for the legs;
- shoes should be selected comfortable, made from natural materials;
- try as little as possible to wear high-heeled shoes;
- should strengthen the muscles of the foot with the help of special exercises;
- it is desirable to use special orthopedic insoles;
- Sports can be carried out only in specially designed shoes.
Cure arthrosis without medication? It is possible!
Get a free book "Step-by-step plan for restoring mobility of the knee and hip joints during arthrosis" and begin to recover without expensive treatment and surgery!