Bleeding of the gums occurs during brushing when injuring the sensitive oral mucosa by stiff bristles. But it happens that the gums bleed in the presence of various pathologies or disorders in the human body. Such a phenomenon requires a visit to a dentist, general practitioner or hematologist, who will determine the cause of bleeding and prescribe the appropriate therapy.
Causes of bleeding gums
Many patients do not pay attention to bleeding gums until it starts to cause pain and discomfort in the mouth. Bleeding gums – a sign that signals the presence in the body of various diseases: oral cavity, a separate organ or the whole body. Self-treatment and delaying the visit to the doctor can lead to tragic consequences.
- Gingivitis – inflammation that develops in the mucous membrane of the gums and manifests itself as redness or cyanosis, edema and bleeding. In advanced cases, the symptoms of gingivitis can be quite intense and torment a person even in sleep. This is a fairly common pathology affecting adults, adolescents, children and pregnant women.
- Periodontitis – destructive periodontal disease caused by the destruction of the tissues surrounding and holding the tooth. In the inflammatory process involves the dental ligament, which is replete with blood vessels. Gradually, it collapses, teeth loosen and fall out. Bleeding gums occurs at the slightest touch and even at rest.
developmental stages of periodontitis
- Periodontal disease – dystrophy of the circulatory tissues, leading to the appearance of blood on the surface of the gums and loosening of the teeth.
- Tartar – dark spots on the outer or inner side of the tooth near the gums.
- Stomatitis manifested by inflammation of the oral mucosa and the appearance of vesicles, erosions and ulcerations on its surface. This disease is a protective reaction of the body to various stimuli.
- Traumatic gum damage during teething and removal of teeth, as well as at the overhang of the edges of the filling or crown.
- Allergic reactions on dentures and fillings, improper installation of dentures.
- Leukemia and some other cancers.
- Hemophilia is a rare disease caused by a violation of coagulation or blood clotting, which constantly causes bleeding from the nose, bleeding gums, spontaneous hemorrhages in the joints and internal organs.
- In persons with diabetes, gums bleed very much and hurt.
- Diseases of the digestive system.
- Viral infection – herpes, cytomegalovirus, papillomavirus.
- Candidiasis of the oral cavity.
- Autoimmune and allergic diseases.
- Defect bite.
Along with the above, the cause of bleeding gums can be a deficiency of vitamins, nutrients and trace elements:
A deficiency of calcium and vitamin C is the cause of scurvy – a disease caused by the fragility and fragility of blood vessels and manifested by swelling of the gums and their severe bleeding.
Vitamin K deficiency at the initial stage leads to bleeding of the gums and the appearance of hematomas at the injection sites, and in severe cases – to the development of severe hemorrhagic syndrome with the appearance of blood in the urine, vomit, and feces.
Among other causes of pathology, there are:
- Hormonal imbalances that occur during pregnancy, puberty, menopause;
- Long-term use of certain medications that thin the blood, such as Aspirin;
- Malnutrition, lack of food products containing vitamins B, C, K, E, also lead to the development of pathology;
- Gums react with bleeding to improper and inadequate care of the oral cavity;
- Strong pressure on the teeth during hygiene procedures;
- Chemical irritation of the gums during smoking or at work with chemicals in production.
Bleeding gums – a symptom of diseases of the oral cavity: gingivitis, periodontitis and periodontal disease.
Gingivitis is an inflammation of the oral mucosa without compromising its integrity. and is manifested by painful sensations, hyperemia and swelling of the gums, the appearance of blood and plaque in the mouth. Deep gaps often form between the teeth and gums, the teeth begin to sway, salivation increases. Patients have the feeling that the gums “go down.” Gingivitis often develops when teething and changing teeth.
Periodontitis is characterized by the formation of periodontal pockets, the size of which varies it is insignificant to very large. Of these, pus is usually excreted. In advanced cases, the teeth become loose and fall out. Periodontitis is accompanied by severe bleeding gums, a violation of taste, itching gums. At the same time, the general well-being of the patients is not disturbed, weakness and hyperthermia can be observed.
If bleeding gums occurs on the background of weakness, fever and is accompanied by the appearance of hematomas on the body, prolonged and heavy menstruation, bleeding from the nose, it is necessary as soon as possible to consult a specialist who will conduct a comprehensive examination and identify the main disease.
Bleeding gums during pregnancy
Pregnant women often bleed gums. Almost every second expectant mother faces a similar problem. This is easily explained by the processes occurring in her body: a hormonal explosion is manifested by an increased sensitivity of the gingival vessels, their looseness and inflammation.
Bleeding gums, often occurring in pregnant women, usually disappear on their own after childbirth.
The disease is manifested by swelling, redness, soreness and hypersensitivity of the gums, difficulty chewing food. To get rid of these phenomena, it is necessary to remove inflammation and neutralize plaque.
A comprehensive examination of a woman at the planning stage of pregnancy includes an examination at the dentist and helps prevent the development of the disease in the future.
Bleeding gums in children
Etiological factors of bleeding gums in a child are:
- Infectious diseases,
- Hypo-and beriberi,
- Reduced immunity
- Non-compliance with the rules of personal hygiene, leading to the accumulation of plaque.
Children with signs of gingivitis should not eat hot or cold food and water. Balanced nutrition and vitamin therapy will help strengthen the immune system. Inflamed gums are recommended to lubricate with anti-inflammatory dental gels – “Holisal”, “Metrogil Dent”, rinse your mouth with solutions with antiseptics, black tea. To remove plaque and tartar, you should visit the children’s dental clinic, which will hold a professional teeth cleaning. The dentist will examine the sick baby and make the necessary appointments.
Gum bleeding treatment
Bleeding gums can lead to tooth loss. Finding blood on a toothbrush or toothpaste, it is urgent to contact your dentist, who will give recommendations to restore the state of the gums. If necessary, he will reorganize the oral cavity: heal caries, remove tartar, and then proceed directly to the treatment of the underlying pathology. To do this, patients are prescribed anti-inflammatory gels, physiotherapy procedures, and in advanced cases – antibiotics. Even minor bleeding and swelling of the gums must be treated.. Otherwise, the disease will progress and eventually become chronic.
When bleeding gums, patients are advised to follow a balanced, fortified diet containing foods and meals with enough vitamin C, which prevents gingival bleeding and increases the overall resistance of the body. Vitamin C is found in large quantities in vegetables, herbs, berries and fruits.
Products containing vitamins of group B strengthen tooth enamel, gums, promote rapid healing of wounds and ulcers in the mouth. These include meat dishes made from lamb or beef, eggs, buckwheat, oatmeal, apples, garlic, almonds, and milk.
Vitamins E, K and PP prevent the development of gingivitis or stomatitis, have a wound-healing and soothing effect on the gums, prevent bleeding of the gums.
Persons suffering from bleeding gums, it is recommended to exclude from the diet spicy, salty and sour foods., irritating oral mucosa, limit carbohydrate intake and include foods with a high content of calcium and vitamins of groups C, B, E, K, PP in the daily menu. Dieting significantly increases the effectiveness of the treatment of pathology.
- Dental gels – effective remedies for bleeding gums. Their components easily and quickly penetrate the mucous membrane and have a therapeutic effect: antimicrobial, anti-edema, anti-inflammatory. The most common among them are: “Cholisal”, “Solcoseryl”, “Dental”, “Asepta”. They have a bactericidal, analgesic, cooling effect and act only on the surface of the gum, without penetrating deep into the tissues. All these drugs do not irritate the mucous membrane and act immediately after application.
- Dental ointment – Upident-Active, Metrogil Dent, Kamistad.
- Severe forms of the disease are treated with antibiotics. from the group of cephalosporins, macrolides, penicillins – “Erythromycin”, “Amoxicillin”, “Ampicillin”, “Cephalexin”.
- In case of severe pain in the gums, pain relievers are used.
- Immunomodulators and multivitamins are prescribed to patients., improve the condition of the gums. Vitamin A, B, C, E deficiency is manifested by weakness, friability and paleness of the gums. Vitamin therapy is an indispensable part of the complex treatment of gingivitis, periodontitis and other dental diseases. Immunostimulants – “Lemongrass tincture”, “Immunal”, multivitamins – “Alphabet”, “Vitrum”.
- Vitamins for the treatment of periodontal disease and other oral diseases “Dentovitus”, “Kaltsinova”, “Calcium D3 Nycomed”. “Ascorutin” strengthens the walls of blood vessels and reduces bleeding gums.
- Homeopathic remedies – “Bepleks”, “Poliminerol”, “Vokar”. They improve metabolism, compensate for the deficiency of essential vitamins and minerals in the body, have a disinfecting, immunostimulating and antimicrobial action.
- Removal of tartar held in the clinic by a dentist. The doctor touches the surface of the deposits with the tip of the ultrasound device, and the ultrasonic waves destroy the interaction between the stone and the tooth enamel.
- Rinsing the mouth after eating “Chlorhexidine”, “Miramistinom”, “Tantum Verde”, “Chlorophylliptom” or any other solution with an antiseptic.
- “Rotokan” – antiseptic for local use, restoring damaged areas of the mucous membrane and stopping bleeding. Gauze turunds are moistened in solution and injected into the gingival pockets. You can use the tool for rinsing the mouth.
Gum disease – an indication for physiotherapy treatments to prevent the spread of the inflammatory process and getting rid of it in all possible ways. Physical therapy accelerates the recovery and restoration of gums by improving their blood supply and metabolism in the cells. Patients are prescribed ultraviolet irradiation of the inflamed gums, electrophoresis, massage, treatment with current, oxygen, light therapy, vacuum therapy:
- In dentistry, spend several types of massage – finger, hardware, hydromassage. Douching of the oral cavity with a special device for gum massage will help to improve the blood supply to the gums, relieve swelling and pain.
- With the help of low-frequency current, various drugs are injected into the human body. Electrophoresis is used in the treatment of gingivitis, pulpitis, periodontitis to reduce pain and restore gums. Carry out electrophoresis anesthetics – novocaine or analgin and acids – nicotinic, aminocaproic, ascorbic.
- Balneotherapy has not only a local effect on the oral mucosa, but also a general strengthening effect on the entire body.
- Ultraviolet irradiation on the gum area destroys pathogenic microbes, promotes cell growth and renewal.
Physiotherapy in dentistry gives an excellent positive result, it takes a little time – only 5 procedures, it does not last long and is absolutely painless.
There are many recipes of traditional medicine to get rid of bleeding gums. To eliminate the symptoms of the pathology, various herbal decoctions are used that stimulate the immune system, have anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial effects.
The most common folk recipes are:
- Tincture sage, St. John’s wort, chamomile, calendula.
- Blueberry decoction and decoction of oak bark.
- To combat tartar, you should drink black radish juice.
- It is useful to clean and massage the gums with sea salt gently, without damaging the tooth enamel.
- Rinsing the mouth and washing the periodontal pockets with hydrogen peroxide or soda solution.
- Horseradish juice with the addition of wine improves the condition of the gums.
- A cotton swab dipped in an infusion of medicinal herbs or hydrogen peroxide is applied to the sore spot for twenty minutes.
- Calamus rhizome is crushed and slowly chewed several times a day.
- Mouth rinse with sunflower oil, and then spit it out.
Folk remedies are not able to completely cure the pathology, they can only remove the unpleasant sensations. Only a trip to the dental clinic will allow loosening and tooth loss. The dentist will give individual recommendations regarding nutrition, explain the rules for brushing your teeth and the use of dental floss, prescribe traditional medications, and in cases of extreme necessity select the appropriate method of surgical treatment.
Video: folk remedies for bleeding gums
Preventive measures to prevent bleeding gums:
- Periodic medical examinations at the dentist.
- Compliance with the instructions of the dentist to care for the gums at home.
- Personal hygiene.
- Sanitation of foci of chronic infection – timely treatment of caries.
- Fighting bad habits – smoking exacerbates the problem with gums.
- Complete, balanced, rich in vitamins and minerals food with the restriction of sugar-containing products.
- Toothbrush with bristles of medium hardness should be chosen for owners of normal teeth without any problems. It is necessary to change a toothbrush to a new one every three months to prevent pathogens from accumulating on it. On brushes with a natural bristle microbes more intensively breed. This must be considered when the first signs of inflammation appear.
- To control bleeding, gently rub the gums with a swab dipped in ice water.
When bleeding is prohibited to use whitening toothpastes, because they only increase the irritation and inflammation of the gums.
You should brush your teeth at least 2 times a day, and ideally after each meal. The process of brushing your teeth should last from 5 to 7 minutes. At the same time, it is necessary to do not only horizontal movements with a brush, but also vertical ones, which allow to remove food particles from interdental spaces.
A healthy, snow-white smile is a sign of beauty and health. Having once found traces of blood on a toothbrush, you should immediately contact your dentist. By regularly observing all preventive measures, you can relieve the gums from inflammation and bleeding.