Steaming in the bath is not only very useful, but also quite nice. Anyone who has tried this procedure at least once, remembers it with delight and pleasure. The languor in the steam room and the “awakening” in a cold pool, in the shower or in the snow — refresh and excite. No wonder after the bath you feel reborn. Its benefits are incredible – aromatherapy relieves stress, hot steam opens pores, removes slags from the body, and icy water closes pores, narrows blood vessels and refreshes, invigorates, “turns on” defense mechanisms. The decision to build a bathhouse at the dacha is a prudent matter, since not everyone can go to the public steam rooms with peace of mind. In addition, just outside the city you can allow yourself to be dumped in the snow when the weather is right. To fully enjoy the process, you need to pay due attention to the arrangement of the steam room. An excellent solution could be a brick stove for a bath.
Device and types of sauna stoves
The main thing in the construction of the steam room is to lay out the brick stove for a bath. It is also called a stove, as the main heat comes from the stones that it heats. This stove is heated with wood, as coal and peat emit an unpleasant odor and create too high temperatures, gradually destroying the laying. A brick bath stove consists of a firebox, a chamber for heating stones, and an exhaust pipe. A small ash compartment is located under the grate; a heat exchanger is usually installed above the firebox to heat water. Below is a diagram of a brick stove made by experts.
By the way, the heaters are open and closed. In the first case, the heating stones are placed directly above the firebox and left open. Such stoves heat up the room faster, but due to the fact that they quickly cool down, they have to be heated almost continuously while using the steam room. Therefore, open heaters are often used for saunas, and, as a rule, with an electric furnace.
Cobblestones in closed type heaters are protected by refractory masonry. But the device of an additional compartment increases the dimensions of the furnace itself. Yes, and the stones for it will need twice as much so that they do not have time to quickly cool.
Sometimes sauna stoves are heated with coal. But then, in order to prevent the soot from settling on the inner walls, they use a cast-iron stove, a potbelly stove, which is laid on top of a brick.
The ideal brick brick stove
- Such a construction should first of all comply with the fire safety regulations, because baths are built mainly from logs. Also made of wood beds, floors, shelves. To prevent accidental fire, you must put a metal sheet in front of the fire door.
If you plan to use a cast iron boiler indoors, then you must make a brick screen for a bath stove.
- Since the bath consists of three rooms – a dressing room, a washing room and a steam room, a brick oven should form the optimum temperature in each of them. This is necessary in order to be able to periodically relax after hot procedures. Properly arranged in the bath, the stove allows you to use a warm shower or bath a day after heating.
- Besides the fact that the bath stove provides the whole family with hot water for two days (heating about 200 liters), it must create a certain humidity in the steam room – at least 35-65%.
- Steam for a bath needs light, “dry”, that is, fine, with the smallest drops, otherwise it will be difficult to breathe in the room and it may even harm health. Dry steam can be obtained if the stones are heated to a temperature of 300 ÷ 700 ° C. And for this they need to be placed not in the open form, but in a special compartment of the furnace, which can be closed so as not to overheat the air. That is, the ideal stove for a bath is a closed type heater.
How to choose stones for a bath stove
Stones to create steam must be heavy and solid. It is better if they are rounded, with a smooth surface and of various sizes – from 50 to 150 mm in diameter. Preferred breeds: diabase, basalt, raspberry quartzite, white quartz, serpentine. They not only keep the temperature well and give off heat, but also have a positive effect on health. Himalayan salt stones or cast iron cores can also be used. But the latter lose salt in its beneficial properties, and quickly rust. Salt also helps to strengthen blood vessels, reduces pain in the joints, rejuvenates.
In total, a closed type bath stove will need up to 300 kg of stones.
The worst thing you can think of is granite, pebble or sandstone. Firstly, they serve for a short time at high temperatures, and secondly, when they collapse, they release harmful substances.
In no case can not pick up the stones in the yard. Sedimentary rocks have a porous structure, with a sharp change in temperature, they split, and some small fragment can fly off a couple of meters and hurt someone.
Over time, the stones will be covered with bloom from the liquids poured on the stove (herbal preparations, kvass) and soot, because every 2-3 months they will have to be cleaned. They also need to be completely replaced about once every three years, since during this time they are partially destroyed and cease to give off heat with the same intensity.
Equipment and materials
Brick bath stove should be made of quality materials: no chips, cracks, voids, irregularities. For the firebox you need a Gzhel refractory or fire-resistant fireclay brick. In total for the device of the furnace (size 102 × 153 × 231 cm) in the steam room for 10 m 2 you will need:
- 950 full-bodied red bricks, brand not lower than M-100;
- 420 refractory bricks of the same size;
- 6 standard grate 300 × 220 mm;
- furnace door 250 × 280 mm;
- 1 blowing door 200 × 250 mm;
- the door for the camera with cobblestones – 420 × 380 or 420 × 500 (made to order);
- Chamotte clay – 500 kg or 250 kg of clay and 200 kg of chamotte mortar;
- quartz sand – 500 kg;
- steel corner number 60 – 4 pcs .;
- heating steel sheet — full width;
- steel corners No. 60 96 cm for overlapping (overlapping the upper part of the furnace above the chamber with cobblestones) – 10 pcs .;
- chamotte parts for overlapping lining W-95 – 630 × 230 × 90 – 6 pcs .;
Particular attention should be paid to the quality of construction and connection materials. You can, of course, try to take the cheapest brick for the kiln, but then you have to adjust it to the standard size (250 × 120 × 65) and cut it to prevent too wide joints.
Preparation of the solution
For stove heater use clay solution. For its preparation, take high-quality clay, extracted from a depth of not less than 1.5 m and purified quartz sand (preferably river). Since dry clay is difficult to process, it is better to soak for 1-2 days. If it is too oily, you can add chamotte mortar to it, but not immediately, but with the sand.
Kneading the mortar begins with preparing the clay: first, it is kneaded with a special spatula, similar to an oar, then water is added to it and stirred with a construction mixer until sour cream is obtained. After that, sand is gradually added to the clay in a ratio of 1: 1 or 1: 2 (depending on the fat content), continuing to stir.
Since only one brick with a solution weighs 4 kg, then, accordingly, the weight of the entire heater is several tons. So the foundation needs to be given special attention.
Perform this task in the following sequence:
- dig a recess 700 mm from ground level;
- cover the bottom with sand by 150 mm and moisten it so that it sinks more tightly;
- pour a layer of gravel (can be mixed with rubble or broken brick) for 150 mm;
- then install the formwork, reinforced frame and fill the bottom with concrete;
- after the reinforced concrete hardens, the formwork is removed, the resulting cracks are covered with sand;
- the finished foundation is checked by level, if necessary, leveled with a solution, then covered with roofing felt.
Important. The foundation should protrude beyond the edges of the future furnace at 50-60 mm.
The laying of a brick stove takes no more than two days. The most difficult to lay out the first row – it must be thoroughly aligned with an accuracy of 1 mm. Further, it will be checked on laying the remaining rows with a plumb line. The horizontal is also important to observe, for which the rule is needed.
The laying of the heater consists of the following steps:
- 1st row. First lay out the perimeter, starting at the corners. Bricks for them are selected with perfectly smooth rectangular faces. Then fill the inside of the base.
- 2nd row. The bricks are placed with an offset so that the seams of the previous row are exactly in the middle.
- 3-4 row. Leave a place under the ashpit, set to him a blowing door. To do this, it is fixed with galvanized wire, which is immersed between the bricks in the solution.
- 5th row. Here they put a corner so that in the future it would be easier to change the grates, which periodically burn through.
- 6th row. The lining of the internal walls of the furnace of refractory bricks begins with it, forming a firebox up to the 14th row.
Important! A gap of 20 mm is left between the lining and the furnace wall to compensate for the difference in expansion when heated. Where there is overlap, the distance between the walls should be increased to 50 mm.
- 8th row. Install the furnace door. More than 10 holes are drilled in it for the flow of oxygen. Otherwise, it will have to be opened.
- 14th row. In it again establish corners on which grid-irons under stones support. From this row begins bookmark cameras for stones. It should be sufficient, but not too large, so that the upper cobblestones are also well warmed. The optimal height – 50 cm – is 7 rows. When the camera is ready, it is lined with steel, heat-reflecting sheets.
Important! Between the grate bars there must be at least 7 rows of brickwork, otherwise the flame will unnecessarily “lick” the cobblestones, forming soot on them.
- From 22 to 27 rows leave an opening for steam. Its width is either 38 or 50 cm. This is enough so that a man of average build can, if necessary, carry out internal repair work or change stones.
The door for the opening is usually made to order, since the required size is practically not available for sale. They fix it in the same way as the furnace.
- 28th row. The bricks are laid over the opening.
- 29th row. Lining overlap chamotte details. In the middle, in two adjacent parts, cut out a hole for smoke (see diagram below).
- 30th row. A row of bricks are put on the ceiling, closing the seams.
- 31st row. The design is covered with a steel sheet, after cutting a hole in it.
- 32nd row. Lay bricks around the perimeter.
- 33rd row. Install the corners for overlapping and cover them with brickwork, leaving a smoke hole.
Next, form a chimney of 6 bricks in a row.
How to use the stove for the Russian bath
When fired, hot gases pass through the gaps between the stones and give them their heat. When the cobble stones are heated (up to 800 ° C), it is necessary to stop maintaining the fire and, after waiting for the firewood to burn out, clean the ash pan. After this, the room should be ventilated, not forgetting to pour water on the stones so that the soot from them will descend a little with the steam. At the end of these procedures, when the smell of smoke and soot goes away, you can use the bath. We hope that all the recommendations will help you build a brick oven in the bath. However, if you doubt that you will be able to do this without experience, it is better to contact our specialists for advice.