Protein in the urine of a child is not often found. Normally, it does not exist at all, or it is present in extremely small quantities. Indicators to 0,036 g / l of urine should not disturb parents. However, its content above this indicator is a signal for re-testing and more in-depth examination.
What does it mean
The appearance of protein in the urine of a child can mean the development of various diseases or the reaction of the body to certain factors. The persistent excess of its concentration indicates the presence of renal pathology associated with impaired filtration, renal vascular permeability, tissue damage, and hormonal imbalances.
Types of proteinuria
Under proteinuria understand the increase in protein in the urine. Depending on the volume of the detected protein, they speak of weak, moderate and high proteinuria.
With mild proteinuria, the protein content is no more than
There are several types of proteinuria:
- Physiological (functional). Not a sign of kidney disease. Occurrence is associated with the influence of specific factors, for example, exercise or the use of protein products. The elimination of the influencing factor leads to the normalization of the protein level.
- Orthostatic. It is found only in the daily sample. In the morning collection of urine traces are not found. Appears mainly in adolescents and with a long stay on his feet. Arises spontaneously, is not associated with pathology. However, it is recommended to be tested periodically in order to diagnose the development of a possible disease in time.
- Pathological. Associated with various diseases and there are three types. Prerenal appears on the background of diseases not related to the kidneys. Postrenal is associated with protein ingestion in urine from the urinary tract or genital organs. There are no abnormalities in the kidneys. Renal evidence of impaired functioning of the kidneys.
Increased protein in the urine of a child appears due to various reasons, both pathological and physiological. Keeping it in urine can be both temporary and enduring.
Causes of functional temporary proteinuria:
- exercise stress;
- sun exposure for a long time;
- eating high protein foods;
- stress and mental stress;
- transient state of infants;
- insufficient hygiene before testing;
- errors in processing the results.
Stable, repeated detection of protein in urine means the likely development of the disease:
- inflammatory processes;
- kidney injury;
- renal tuberculosis;
- endocrine pathologies;
- cardiovascular disorders;
- long-term use of drugs, such as antibiotics.
Possible deviations in the work of the kidneys are indicated, first of all, by the appearance of edema on the face, hands and feet. Additionally, pallor of the skin, painful urination, complaints of pain in the abdomen or back, fever are noteworthy.
The child gets tired quickly, constantly wants to sleep, refuses to eat. Baby vomits, sick. Urine from light yellow, thatch becomes dark, decreases its volume. With a slight excess of the protein content, all these symptoms are not detected.
To determine why the urine protein level is elevated, the following tests are taken:
- General analysis. The results estimate not only the protein content, but also the color, smell, density, hemoglobin and other indicators of urine. For delivery the first portion of urine is taken.
- Daily study. Urine is collected within 24 hours in a special dish. Daily diuresis is assessed, a sample is taken from the full portion and sent for laboratory testing. The analysis of the content of proteins, glucose, erythrocytes, leukocytes.
- Test Zimnitsky. Urine is collected according to a specific pattern during the day, starting at 9 am every 3 hours.
- Nechiporenko method. Primarily aimed at detecting signs of inflammation in the urogenital system. Shows the content of red blood cells, leukocytes, proteins, bacteria, cylinders. When collecting it is important to release the first portion of urine into the toilet.
- Express test. Recently, special diagnostic strips with reagents applied to them are used to quickly obtain the results of urine tests. The chemical preparation allows to evaluate leukocyte formulas, the level of a certain indicator, for example, glucose, protein, a combination of several indicators that are symptoms of a certain disease. For example, in diabetes, the reagent exhibits a reaction to ketones and glucose.
Before you take any urine test, it is important to follow certain rules. The day before the test, it is desirable to limit physical activity, not to expose the child to stress, to limit their intake of high-protein foods. Do not bathe it in a hot water bath. Before you pee in the tank for testing, the baby should be well undermined.
For the test, take the first morning portion of urine (for the daily breakdown the scheme is slightly different).
The sample is recruited into special containers; for infants, urinals are used, from which urine is drained into a container. It is important to use only sterile products, so pouring urine from the pots, squeezing urine from the diapers is unacceptable.
The analysis must be submitted to the laboratory no later than two hours from the date of collection. Do not store urine at high or very low temperatures.
Standards in the table
Normally, there should be no protein in the urine in children, but doctors allow it to be present within certain limits. The table of the norm of protein in the urine of a child shows indicators depending on its age:
The increased content of leukocytes makes the urine turbid, dark, formations resembling flakes appear in it.
The norm of concentration of leukocytes depends on age and gender:
Inflammatory diseases are the basis for antibacterial therapy and the use of anti-inflammatory drugs.
Detection in the urine of salts indicates the development of urolithiasis. Diuretic drugs may be prescribed, in severe cases surgery is possible.
When diabetes mellitus prescribed drugs that reduce sugar. With increasing pressure – drugs aimed at reducing it. In the treatment of severe pathologies using hormonal agents.
With light proteinuria, it is enough to make changes in the child’s menu, reducing the intake of protein foods. Dieting is indicated for all patients with elevated urine protein concentrations. Salty and spicy dishes are excluded from the menu.
Often used in the treatment of traditional medicine: decoctions of rosehip, bearberry extracts, lingonberry juice.
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