# Examples of social exchange theory

Real GDP in 1996 amounted to 2,200 trillion. rub. In 1997, he grew by 50 trillion. rub. it is known that the index – GDP deflator in 1997 was 110%. Taking 1996 as the base, calculate how many trillion rubles the nominal GDP increased in 1997 compared to the nominal GDP of 1996. Decision 1996: GDP = 2200

With price = 8

The table shows the trade indicators for sandwiches in the canteen. Draw a graph of the demand for sandwiches at given prices and quantities of sales. Determine at what price trading revenue will be the maximum. Fill in the price elasticity of demand column.

The total cost of production (assembly) of personal computers of the company per month is 50 million rubles. The production volume is 20 pieces. Constant monthly costs of the company are equal to 20,000 rubles. Determine variable costs, average costs, average fixed and average variable costs. Solution Total costs (TS) = 50000000 p. Production volume (Q) = 20 pcs. Fixed costs (FC) = 20000 p. Variable Costs (VC) = TC – FC = 49980000 p. Average costs (ATC) = TC / Q = 2500000 r. Average fixed costs (AFC) = FC / Q = 1000 p. Average variable costs (AVC) = VC / Q = 2499000 TC = FC + VC, ATC = TC / Q, AVC = VC / Q, AFC = FC / Q, MC = DTC / DQ = DVC / DQ

The fixed costs of the company (FC) is 10 000 den. units per month. If variable costs (VC) are 20 000 den. units and the company produces 3,000 units. products. Determine total costs (TC), average costs (PBX), average variables (АVC) and average fixed costs (АFC). Solution FC = 10000 VC = 20000 Q = 3000 TC = FC + VC = 30000 ATC = TC / Q = 30000/3000 = 10 AVC = VC / Q = 20000/3000 =

Determine the optimal production volume for the company. Decision

A student during the holidays can earn 500 thousand rubles. or go for English courses. Selecting English courses, the student has compiled a system of expenses: Tuition is 200 rubles. Payment for textbooks on courses – 30 rubles. Transportation costs – 40 rubles. Food expenses – 300 rubles. What are the opportunity costs equal? Solution A: +500000 r. B: -200-30-40-300 = -570 p. The opportunity cost = -570-500000 = -500570

The graph shows the consumer indifference curve and its budget line. Product price A = 18 rubles. Determine what the price of goods is B. How will the position of the budget line change with an increase in the price of goods A to 30 rubles?

Solution 1. Equation of the budget line: Intersection of the budget. lines and y-axis gives 50,

Solution Equilibrium rule MIB / MIA = PB / PA If PA = 4 \$, PB = 2 \$, then 1) 1А and 7В, 20 + 16 + 14 + 12 + 10 + 8 + 6 + 4 = 90, 4 / 20¹2 / 4 2) 2А and 5В, 20 + 16 + 16 + 14 + 12 + 10 + 8 = 96, 8/16 = 2/4 – the rule is fulfilled 3) 3А and 3В, 20 + 16 + 12 + 16 + 14 + 12 = 90, 12 / 12¹2 / 4 4) 4А and 1B, 20 + 16 + 12 + 8 + 16 = 72, 16 / 8¹2 / 4 Tot. utility (TU) = SMI = 20 + 16 + 12 + 8 + 6 + 4 + 16 + 14 + 12 + 10 + 8 + 6 = 132 If PA = 2 \$, PB = 2 \$, then 1A and 8B, 2A and 7В, 3А and 6В, 4А and 5В, 5А and 4В, 6А and 3В, 7А and В2, 8А and 1В

The price of tea has increased from 10 to 20 rubles. per kg Demand for sugar dropped from 2 to 1 kg. The demand for coffee increased from 0.5 to 1.5 kg. The demand for matches has not changed: 10 boxes. Determine the cross elasticity and type of goods at the price of tea. Solution P1Ч = 10, P2Ч = 20; P1С = 2, P2С = 1; P1K = 0.5, P2K = 1.5; P1SP = 10, P2SP = 10; 1) E1 = (1–2) / (1 + 2): (20–10) / (20 + 10) = –10/10 = – 1 – complementary 2) E2 = (

Consumer income increased from 2 to 4 thousand rubles. in year. The demand for margarine fell from 3 to 1 kg per year. The demand for oil has increased from 6 kg to 8 kg per year. Determine the elasticity of demand for income and the nature of the goods. Solution D1 = 2 (100%), D2 = 4 (200%), SM1 = 3 (100%), SM2 = 1 (33%), SMAC1 = 6 (100%), SMAC2 = 8 (133%), EL1 = (33–100) / (200–100) = – 67/100 = –

The demand function is Qd = 40 – 7p, the supply function is Qs = – 6 + 16p. 1) determine the equilibrium price (Re) and the equilibrium sales volume (Qe); 2) How will supply and demand change if the equilibrium price becomes 4 units? Solution 1) In equilibrium conditions Qd = Qs,

The table shows data on the volume of individual demand for fish consumers Ivanov, Petrov and Sidorov. Build graphs of individual and market demand for this product.

Solution Qd Market = Qd Ivanova + Qd Petrov + Qd Sidorov

The population of the country is 100 million people. The number of employed is approximately 50% of the total population. 8% of the employed are registered as unemployed. The number of disabled and studying with the separation from production – 36 million people. The number of unemployed and unwilling for any reason to work amounted to 4 million people. Determine the unemployment rate in the country according to the methodology of the International Labor Organization (ILO). Decision Number of employees = 100 × 50% / 100% = 50 million people. The number of unemployed = 50 × 8% / 100% = 4 million people. Disabled = 36 million people. Not willing to work = 4 million people. Unemployment rate = Number w / o. / Labor × 100% = 4 million. / (100 million – 36 million. × × 100% = 6.25%

In Russia in 1997, the employed population was 68.50 million people, and the economically active population was 73.96 million people. What was the number of unemployed and what was their share in the economically active population? Decision Number of unemployed = Economy. active populated. – Busy populated. = 73.96 – 68.5 = 5.46 million people. 73.96 – 100%, 5.46 – x%. x =

The nominal GNP in the nth year was 1000

There are conditional data: in fact, GNP in the n-th year amounted to 1000 billion den. units The natural rate of unemployment in the same year was 5%. The actual unemployment rate was 7%. Calculate the amount of potential GNP in the n-th year. Solution UBE = 5%, UBF = 7% In this case, the lag of the actual GDP from the potential will be: (7 – 5) ×

Ivanov cut down a tree and sold it to Petrov for 1 thousand rubles. Petrov sawed wood on the boards and sold it to Sidorov for 2.5 thousand rubles. Sidorov made a wardrobe out of them and sold it to Kuznetsov for 4 thousand rubles. Determine the increase in GNP. Solution Increase GNP = amount of added value = (1000-0) + (2500-1000) + (4000-2500) = 4000 p.

The value of the GNP is 5,000 billion dollars, expenditure on consumption is 3,500 billion dollars, investment is 1,000 billion dollars, and government spending is 700 billion dollars. Find net exports. Decision VNPR = C + I + G + Xn, Where: C – consumer spending, I – gross investment, G – state. purchases of goods and services, Xn – net exports Xn = VNPR – C – I – G, Xn = 5000–3500– 1000– 700 = –200 billion dollars

Determine the annual inflation rate Solution 1996: 100 × 20 + 200 × 30 = 8000, 1997: 110 × 30 + 180 × 20 = 6900, Annual Inflation Rate = 1– 6900/8000 = 13.8%

Suppose that national production includes two goods: X (consumer goods) and Y (means of production). This year, 500 units of commodity X were produced (per unit price –

CRC – current or basic market basket price Deflator VNP = CTC / CCHD × 100% CCHD = 1 × 5 + 0.5 × 10 = 10

The entire population of the country is 500 people. Of these, 120 people. – Children up to 16 years old and people in psychiatric hospitals and correctional institutions; 150 people left the labor force; 23 people – unemployed, 10 people. – Part-time and job seekers. Task: Calculate the amount of labor. Official unemployment rate. Solution The size of the labor force = 500 – 120 – 150 = 230 people. Unemployment rate = 23/230 = 0.1 (10%)

Suppose that in a given year the natural rate of unemployment was 5%, and the actual level was 9%. Task: Using the law of Ouken, determine the amount of lag of GNP as a percentage. If the nominal GNP in the same year was 500 billion.

Suppose that the linear equation of consumption in a hypothetical economy has the form: C = 40 + 0.8Y. Suppose also that income (Y) is 400