Dosage forms of essential oils and essential oil plants. Essential oils are used for the manufacture of dosage forms (solutions, aerosols, ointments, tablets, fragrant water) and the correction of the taste of other drugs. Of the essential oils used: anise (containing about 80% anethol), fennel (containing up to 60% anethole), mint (containing up to 50% menthol), eucalyptus (containing at least 60% cineole). Also used turpentine oil (turpentine), mustard oil (essential) from mustard seeds, pink (from rose leaves), clove (from the fruits of cloves), etc. Menthol produces menthol oil (1-2% oil solution). Eucalyptus oil is included in the composition of aerosols (aerosol preparations) “Ingalipt”, “Kamphomen”, “Inhakamf” and others, as well as in the composition of the tablets “Pektusin”, drops of “Evkatol”.
Turpentine oil is a part of 20% turpentine ointment and 40% turpentine liniment complex. Fennel oil (from the fruit of the Volosh dill) is used in the form of dill water (1: 1000), rose oil is included in the preparation rosanol. Peppermint essential oil is included in mint tablets, mint water (5: 200), tooth drops; menthol, clove and eucalyptus – in the composition of the ointment “Gevkamen”, clove, eucalyptus – in the composition of the ointment “Efkamon”, etc.
From the roots of the elecampane, the drug Allantone is released, containing the sum of sesquiterpene lactones. The amount of inhalation preparations containing essential oils is constantly growing. The range of extracts, ointments with essential oils is also increasing, compositions for indoor use and compositions for perfumery and cosmetic products are being introduced.
From herbal raw materials containing essential oils, get tinctures and extracts. From eucalyptus leaves, herbs of wormwood, inflorescences of arnica tincture are prepared in 70% alcohol (1: 5). Mint tincture is obtained from equal parts of essential mint oil and alcohol tincture (1:20 in 90% ethyl alcohol) of peppermint leaves.
Extracts are rarely made due to the high volatility of the constituents of the essential oil during evaporation of extracts. The latter are obtained with the help of alcohol of different concentrations – salmus (from the grass of sage) or alcohol, glycerin and water (thyme extract liquid), or alcohol and chloroform water (extract of wormwood). In recent years, extracts from ethereal plants are obtained using liquefied gases (freons, liquid carbonic acid, etc.). You get extracts containing native substances with unchanged properties of natural essential oils (CO2 – extracts of the fruits of dill, parsley, chamomile flowers, etc.). This technology of preparation of extracts allows to obtain highly effective drugs for medical purposes.
Infusions from aromatic raw materials are obtained by hot and cold methods. In the manufacture of infusions in a hot way, raw materials are poured with boiling water in different ratios: 5: 200 (mint leaves), 10: 200 (grass of wormwood, oregano, thyme, wild rosemary, eucalyptus leaves, caraway seeds, pine buds, etc.).
Broths of a number of plants are prepared in the ratio of 20: 200 (rhizomes and roots of elecampane).
Infusions obtained by the method of infusion on cold water, used in folk medicine for extracting the active substances from plant materials in small quantities. As an example, we present the technology for producing infusions of parsley fruits in cold water: 1/2 tablespoon of parsley fruits are ground in a mortar and infused for 8 hours in 0.5 l of water. Accept inside on 1/2 glasses 4 times a day.
Use infusions of fresh parsley roots (minced in a meat grinder) for the treatment of renal and urolithiasis. To extract the active ingredients used warm water (40 ° C) or milk in a 1: 2 ratio.
Vegetable essential oil raw materials are widely used in collections, as it has a diverse pharmacological effect (choleretic, anti-inflammatory, expectorant, diuretic, soothing, improves digestion, etc.).