# Different types of bipolar

### How to start reading diagrams?

In order to learn how to read diagrams, first of all, we must study how this or that radio element looks in the circuit. In principle, nothing complicated about it. The whole point is that if the Russian alphabet has 33 letters, then in order to learn the designations of radio elements, you will have to try hard.

Until now, the whole world cannot agree on how to designate a radio element or device. Therefore, keep this in mind when you collect bourgeois schemes. In our article we will consider our Russian GOST version of the designation of radio elements.

### We study a simple scheme

Okay, more to the point. Let’s look at a simple electrical power supply circuit, which previously flashed in any Soviet paper edition:

If you are not holding the soldering iron in your hands for the first day, then everything will be clear to you at first glance. But among my readers there are those who come across such drawings for the first time. Therefore, this article is mainly for them.

Well, let’s analyze it.

Basically, all the diagrams are read from left to right, just like you are reading a book. Any different scheme can be represented as a separate block, to which we are giving something and from which we are shooting something. Here we have the power supply circuit, to which we supply 220 volts from the wall socket of your house, and the constant voltage comes out from our unit. That is, you must understand what is the main function of your circuit. This can be read in the description of it.

### How radio elements are connected in the circuit

So, it seems to have decided on the task of this scheme. Straight lines are wires or printed conductors along which electric current will flow. Their task is to connect radio elements.

The point where three or more conductors connect is called knotted. It can be said that in this place the wiring is soldered:

If you look closely at the circuit, you can notice the intersection of two conductors

Such an intersection will often flash in the diagrams. Remember once and for all: in this place the wires do not connect and they must be isolated from each other. In modern schemes, most often you can see this option, which already visually shows that there is no connection between them:

Here, as it were, one posting on top bends around the other, and they do not come into contact with each other.

If there was a connection between them, then we would see just such a picture:

### The letter designation of radio elements in the scheme

Let’s look at our scheme again.

As you can see, the scheme consists of some obscure icons. Let’s disassemble one of them. Let it be the R2 icon.

So let’s first deal with the inscriptions. R is a resistor. Since we are not the only one in the scheme, the developer of this scheme gave him the serial number “2”. In the scheme of their whole 7 pieces. Radio elements are generally numbered from left to right and top to bottom. A rectangle with a dash inside already shows clearly that it is a fixed resistor with a power dissipation of 0.25 watts. Also next to it is written 10K, which means its face value of 10 Kilo. Well, something like this …

How are the other radio elements designated?

For the designation of radio elements used single-letter and multi-letter codes. Single-letter codes are Group, to which one or another element belongs. Here are the main ones. radio element groups:

BUT – these are various devices (for example, amplifiers)

AT – converters of non-electric quantities into electrical ones and vice versa. This may include various microphones, piezoelectric elements, speakers, and so on. Generators and power supplies here do not include.

D – integrated circuits and various modules

E – different elements that do not fall into any group

F – arresters, fuses, protective devices

G – generators, power supplies, quartz generators

H – indication devices and signaling devices, for example, sound and light indication devices

K – relays and starters

M – engines

R – instruments and measuring equipment

Q – switches and disconnectors in power circuits. That is, in circuits where a large voltage and a large current flow

R – resistors

S – switching devices in control, signaling and measurement circuits

U – converters of electrical quantities into electrical, communication devices

V – semiconductor devices

W – lines and elements of ultra-high frequency antenna

X – contact connections

Y – mechanical devices with electromagnetic drive

Z – terminals, filters, limiters

To clarify an element after a single letter code, there is a second letter, which already indicates item type. Below are the main types of elements along with the letter of the group:

BL – photocell

Bq – piezoelectric element

BR – speed sensor

BS – pickup

Bv – speed sensor

BA – loudspeaker

BB – magnetostriction element

BK – thermal sensor

BM – microphone

BP – pressure meter

BC – selsyn sensor

DD – digital integrated circuit, logic element

DS – information storage device

DT – delay device

EL – lighting lamp

EK – a heating element

FA – element of protection for current instant action

FP – element of inertia protection current protection

FU – fuse

Fv – voltage protection element

GB – battery

Hg – character indicator

HL – light alarm device

HA – sound alarm device

KV – voltage relay

Ka – current relay

KK – electrothermal relay

KM – magnetic switch

Kt – time relay

PC – pulse counter

PF – frequency counter

PI – active energy meter

PR – ohmmeter

PS – recording device

PV – voltmeter

Pw – wattmeter

PA – ammeter

PK – reactive energy meter

PT – clock

QF – Automatic switch

QS – disconnector

Rk – thermistor

RP – potentiometer

Ru – varistor

SA – switch or switch

SB – push button switch

SF – Automatic switch

SK – switches, triggered by temperature

SL – level switches

SP – pressure switches

SQ – switches triggered by position

SR – the switches working from frequency of rotation

Tv – voltage transformer

TA – current transformer

Ub – modulator

Ui – discriminator

Ur – demodulator

Uz – frequency converter, inverter, frequency generator, rectifier

VL – Electrovacuum device

VS – thyristor

WA – antenna

WT – phase shifter

Wu – attenuator

XA – current collector, sliding contact

Xp – pin

XS – nest

Xt – collapsible connection

Xw – high frequency connector

Ya – electromagnet

Yb – brake with electromagnetic drive

Yc – electromagnetic clutch

Yh – electromagnetic stove

ZQ – quartz filter

### Graphic designation of radio elements in the scheme

I will try to give the most common designations of elements used in the schemes: