Country cottage, private house, cottage only benefit from the installation of a beautiful stove or fireplace. And what can we say about how the room will change from the lining of the old stove. Of course, today the stove plays a decorative role in the interior of the room rather than a functional one, but the idea of the home, as embodied in a modern home, will never lose its relevance.
Facing the furnace, in the language of professionals, is the application of a finishing finish on the design of the heating device. The most popular solution is stove tile trim. This service is provided by the master stove makers. But there are no prerequisites for not doing the lining of the furnace with his own hands. Especially when there is a step-by-step instruction with a detailed description, photos, drawings and diagrams that even a novice can understand.
How to tile a tile correctly and durable
The order of work is performed in a certain sequence, you should not neglect the intermediate stages.
1. Features of lining tiles of different types of furnaces
First of all, not all furnaces are suitable for lining, and with some species will have to tinker. Three types of furnaces are distinguished:
When facing a metal surface with a tile, it is necessary to understand that metal and tile have different coefficients of thermal expansion. Thus, the plate and the tile on it will be heated and cooled at different speeds. This will invariably lead to the detachment of the decorative tile or even its cracking. But, in this case, the lining of the metal furnace tile is possible. Professionals recommend moving the ligament between the tile and the surface of the furnace on the Klymer, this technology will help avoid cracking;
Double-brick heating furnaces
Ideal if you plan to tile brick kiln. This is due to the fact that the furnace has two circuits: internal (firebox and vaults) and external. The outer contour, which is in contact with the lining, heats up much less than the inner one, and therefore the facing tile keeps on such a furnace best of all. By the way, an additional advantage of this furnace design can be considered the lack of local overheating. What allows to revet a fireplace or the furnace one material and with use of one type of solution for its fastening;
Single brick ovens
Often they are installed in the baths, for which the furnace was called the “bath furnace”. The most problematic option. After all, there is only one circuit, which means that the surface warms up more strongly than in a double-circuit furnace. Masters performing the facing of a single-circuit furnace must have certain experience in order to correctly choose the tile for facing and the mortar that will hold it. Particular attention deserve areas of local overheating.
Among other things, the furnace installed in the bath is exposed to temperature and humidity changes. Tiling a bath stove requires more careful selection of materials. It is recommended to use porcelain stoneware, as the least porous material that can withstand the highest temperature. It is possible to veneer a tile with terracotta tiles, but its thickness must be at least 8 mm, and the distance between adjacent tiles at least 10 mm.
2. Oven measurement and tile calculation
After the dimensions of the furnace have been measured, the type of material has been determined, the exact dimensions of one tile have been clarified, the presence of decorative elements and their parameters can be used to calculate how much tile is needed to cover the stove.
To do this, it is necessary to calculate the area of the furnace, including vertical and horizontal surfaces. It should be remembered that laying tiles on the stove requires an inter-spacing gap (distance between the tiles), which is from 2 to 10 mm. This area must be subtracted.
To the estimated value of the master-stove, it is recommended to add 10-15% for undercuts and chips that appear during cutting.
Users advise to make an insurance stock in the amount of 5% of the amount received. After all, the tile may fall off or burst during operation of the furnace. Moreover, if there are several types of decorative elements, then it is necessary that there should be at least two pieces of each of them. This increases the cost of facing the stove with tiles, but saves you from thinking about how to replace the missing cladding element.
Note. Especially accurate calculation should be carried out for tiles.
Ways of laying tiles on the stove
The second aspect that affects the volume of purchase of materials is the method of laying tiles when facing the furnace (Figure).
Laying the tile butt in straight rows (butt, seam into the seam) can be laid square or rectangular tiles. The application of this method is possible only when the tiles have the same geometric dimensions. It is suitable for display panels or patterns on the surface of the furnace. In this case, it is desirable that the layout starts and ends with whole tiles. It is this nuance that will not allow the way to take a leading position;
A variety of tiles allows you to create your own ways of laying, combining materials and creating unique patterns.
3. The choice of tiles and tools for lining the furnace
A detailed explanation of how to tile a stove is possible only when there is an understanding of the material in question.
The most accessible tile for a long time remained tile. Many today regard it as a full-fledged alternative. But, despite the cheapness of the material, the lining of the furnace with a tile, carries in it pitfalls. After all, the tile for lining the furnace must meet certain conditions (fire-resistant, heat-resistant, heat-resistant).
Facing the furnace with ceramic tiles is possible if the material meets the requirements of:
- shape and size. Masters say the smaller the tile, the less likely it is to peel off and crack. For example, a tile with a size of 100×100 is more mobile due to seams, rather than a tile with larger dimensions. Form imprints on the way of laying. The presence of a picture to be selected also complicates the calculation and display;
- matching shades of tiles;
- technical properties: strength, fire resistance, fine porosity of the structure, indicative of moisture absorption, coefficient of thermal expansion, resistance to mechanical damage;
- environmental safety, confirmed by a certificate.
Today, among the materials that meet the listed conditions are:
- terracotta tiles (terracotta);
- clinker tiles;
- porcelain stoneware.
In addition to tiles, for lining are needed:
- crosses or patterns. To ensure a seam thickness of 10 mm. users are advised to use pieces of ceiling plasterboard. Their advantage is easy dismantling;
- heat-resistant grout;
- metal mounting grid;
- hardware berbachi or nails / screws and washers;
- rubber mallet;
- chisel or punch to remove the old coating from the tile;
- putty knife. They need to prepare three kinds. Conventional spatula to remove the coating and apply a leveling layer of putty or glue. Serrated – for applying the solution on the tile. As well as a special spatula for jointing (grouting).
- tile cutter. Allow to minimize material costs from chipping on the front surface;
- level and plumb;
- soap solution;
- adhesive solution;
Glue and tile solution for stoves
The quality of adhesion of the tile and the surface of the furnace depends on the solution on which the tile is placed on the furnace. In view of the purpose, the adhesive solution must be heat-resistant, fire-resistant, heat-resistant.
Clay solution for oven
How to cook: clay, sand and water are mixed in certain proportions, which depend on the type of clay:
- for fatty clay, the ratio will be 1 part of clay, 4 parts of sand, 1 part of water. The fat content of the clay can be determined in the laboratory or in the folk way – it does not feel the sand, and the ball rolled out of it will strongly crack;
- for normal – 1: 3: 1
- for skinny – 1: 2.5: 1
How to prepare: cement, sand are mixed in a ratio of 1: 3 and water is brought to the desired consistency. At the same time, the cement must be brand M 400 or higher. To improve the properties of the solution it is recommended to add PVA, asbestos. Stoves advise to add salt 1 kg. on the bucket mix;
A solution of dry mix or special adhesives (cement, dispersion, epoxy)
They are mixtures ready for use and intended for a specific type of tile. They are good in that the proportions in them are carefully checked, and in addition, various plasticizers are added to improve the properties of the adhesive solution. Had a good chance to establish such adhesives as: SCANMIX Skanfixsuper (Finland), Plitonite-Super Fireplace (Russia-Germany). From the budget options: SILTEK T-84 (Ukraine), “Pechnik” (Belarus) and “Plitonit W” (Russia).
Ready adhesive solution – adhesive mastic
Choosing this type of glue you need to pay attention to the labeling. It should be used for facing stoves and fireplaces. Good user reviews on NEOMID SUPERCONTACT (Russia), Terrakot (Russia), “Parade-77” (Belarus). But, in general, the quality of mastic adhesion to the surface leaves much to be desired.
In any case, the solution must meet the requirements for heat resistance and thermal expansion coefficient. Ideally, tile laying on the stove should be performed on the same mortar as leveling its surface.
All professionals and users agree that it is not worth saving on materials.
4. Laying tiles – drawing, cutting
Laying tiles on the furnace is carried out on the basis of a prepared drawing or sketch. Professionals in this case provide the specification on the basis of which the material is acquired. For beginners, a visual image and the actual layout of the desired composition will greatly facilitate the process of calculation, purchase and styling.
The drawing of the furnace with facing material has the form shown in the figure.
Tiled stove – drawing
3D visualization will help assess the appearance of the future lining.
Tiling of the stove – 3D layout
Laying tiles – simplifies the installation process, because it allows you to perform laying tiles on the stove in the exact sequence. In addition, it allows the selection of tiles on the pattern, shape, shade. The size of the tile is adjusted to laying with the seams. For trimming products are used with chips and defects.
Council The most massive (large) tile is laid on the lower rows. Also on the bottom is a tile of greater thickness. Otherwise, it will be impossible to make a flat surface.
The finished oven after lining will look like this
5. Preparing the furnace for tiling
High-quality installation and long life of the lining of the furnace is possible only when laying tiles on a prepared substrate.
The need for cladding can be caused by two reasons, and the scope of work for each will be different. However, the common goal is the same – to give the furnace the correct geometric shapes, in which all surfaces are even and the corners correspond to 90 °.
Option 1: facing a new (freshly built) furnace
Even the construction constructed according to all building codes will need preparation. In this case, it will be reduced to the fact that the surface of the base is cleaned from dust, primed, equipped with a grid and marking. In more detail, these types of work will be discussed below.
Option 2: lining an old (operated) furnace
This option is much more complicated than the previous one, since it involves the implementation of a larger number of draft works. Therefore, consider the sequence in more detail.
Furnaces installed in the house, as a rule, already have some kind of lining. Often it is finishing with plaster followed by whitewashing or tiling. Therefore, before proceeding with the installation of a new coating, you must remove the old one.
Removal (removal) of plaster from the furnace surface
The plaster does not last long on a hot stove. Cracks appear from the heat on it or the surface layer moves away from the base. In any case, before proceeding with the lining, you need to get rid of the decorative coating (remove, clean).
How to remove old plaster from the stove
In practice, there are two methods for removing plaster from the surface:
Power method. It is used if most of the plaster keeps well on the walls of the furnace. Its use involves knocking down the plaster with a percussion nozzle punch. This method is fast, but as a result, a lot of dust is created and there is a possibility of damage to the brickwork.
Simplify the work can use grinders. With the help of a diamond disk, slots are made on the surface of the furnace. Their depth should be equal to the thickness of the plaster layer. There is nothing critical if the disc of 10-15 mm goes into the thickness of the masonry. Next, the removal of the plaster continues with a perforator, a hammer or a chisel. If the removal is still difficult, the masters advise to heat the site with a building dryer and continue working.
Gradual cleaning. The method is slower and involves the impregnation of water with plaster and its subsequent scrapping with a spatula.
It is worth noting that some masters recommend leaving the plaster on the stove, provided that it is well kept throughout the area.
Removing (removing) paint from the surface of the furnace
Applying paint on the stove is a simple and inexpensive way to decorate the stove. But, the painted surface under the influence of temperature will be husked and may harm human health (the release of harmful substances).
How to remove old paint from a brick oven
Removing paint from a brick surface is not so easy. The thin layer is removed with a metal brush. A good tool for cleaning paint will be using a building hair dryer. A thicker layer in some places departs itself, and where this has not happened and the adhesion to the surface is strong, it is necessary to make notches, for example, with a hatchet.
Dismantling (removal) of old tiles from the furnace
When the tile is peeled off or if you want to renew the stove lining, you need to knock the tile off the stove.
How to remove old tiles from the stove surface
It is recommended to perform dismantling works from top to bottom. After removing the last row, go down to the next one. The tile is removed using a chisel that clings to the edge of the tile. In this way, the tile is removed without damage. If such a maneuver fails the tiles need to be broken. Chopped tile is removed easier.
Do not be surprised if a brick breaks off when you remove a tile. In any case, the cleaning of the fireplace or stove does not end with the removal of the old coating.
After removing the finish coating, the entire surface of the stove must be thoroughly cleaned from the smallest residues of the solution. Perfect cleaning of brick walls is done by using a brush on the metal.
In order for the subsequent layers of the mortar to adhere better to the substrate, care must be taken to remove the mortar and increase the depth of the brickwork seams. To do this, using a chisel, grinder or spatula, the solution is removed from the inter-seam gaps. Depth of purification 5-10 mm.
Upon completion, the surface is once again cleaned of dust and residual solution with a brush.
To prevent the tiles from peeling off from the base, a metal grid should be installed on the furnace surface.
For work, you will need a mounting grid with cells of 50×50 mm and a wire diameter of up to 1 mm. To fix the mesh, you can use the ceiling dowel with a hat (bierbach).
And you can just put on nails washers or pieces of galvanized. The main thing is that the cap holds the net securely. Hardware is installed only in the seams. At the same time, the nail is hammered, and under the screw you need to drill a hole. 500 mm mesh fixing pitch.
The mesh on the surface is set with tension. Next is the alignment of the surface of the walls with plaster. To do this, you can use glue on which the facing tile or special mortar (clay, cement, sand) will be mounted in a ratio of 3: 1: 0.2 parts.
If the surface that needs leveling has cavities up to 10 mm, then the solution should be applied in two approaches. The maximum allowable layer thickness is specified by the manufacturer. In practice, it is better not to make a layer thicker than 5 mm, this increases the time and reduces the uniformity of its solidification. In this case, the second layer is applied only after the first is completely dry.
Alternative to a grid for alignment of walls:
- installation of hardware with caps and stretching between them the usual wire;
- the use of stretched burlap, pre-aged in a clay solution. When laying burlap it is important to avoid folds and airy sinuses.
The heat-resistant primer applied by brush will improve the quality of adhesion of the solution to the surface. Choosing a primer for stoves and fireplaces is better to prefer deep-penetrating compounds. When the primer is completely dry, you can pre-mark the surface.
Fully prepared for cladding is the surface on which the marking is applied. It involves the installation of lighthouses, which allow you to navigate when performing work on lining.
The markup is applied using a plumb and level. Label the horizontal conveniently using a cord. A more technological approach is to use a laser level.
You should know that even perfectly prepared surface can not save the oven from cracking. The cause of cracks can be:
- excessive overheating;
- incorrectly made bunch of bricks during the construction of the furnace;
- different thickness of inter brick seam.
High-quality preparation of the basis of a surface of the furnace will allow to avoid its deformation and will strongly hold correctly laid facing tile.
Tile mortar is prepared in small portions in 10-15 minutes. before starting work. Moreover, the master-stove-eaters do not use any tools for mixing, the work is done by hand.
6. Facing the stove tiles do it yourself
The technology of tile facing of stoves provides for the choice of the method of installation, and the course of the work will differ accordingly. In this case, in any case, laying is performed from the bottom up and on the heated (at least 30 °) furnace.
Install the first row. Facing the furnace with clinker, terracotta tiles or porcelain stoneware begins at the corner of the furnace. First set the corner elements.
It is worth noting that if the cladding work is carried out before the floor is laid, you need to leave a gap. In this case, the support for the first row will not be the floor, but the rail fastened to the oven surface. The support rail must be attached only to the stove, as the floor may deviate from the horizontal. To bring the horizontal, you need to mark the upper limit of the first row and make laying tiles with trimming from the floor. With this approach, subsequent series will be laid out in accordance with the level.
Pay attention that facing of the furnace with majolica starts from the corner and continues as you lay. If a whole strip hits the corner – great. If trimming is required, then work needs to be started from the second row. Pieces of tiles are set last. It looks more beautiful if the whole tiles are located in the corners, and the sliced fragments are hidden in the junction with the wall.
Next, an adhesive solution is applied to the prepared tile.
How to apply glue to the tile
The adhesive composition is applied in two ways:
- using a notched trowel. This method is suitable in the case of a flat surface. Then the glue spreads to the tile surface evenly and air pockets are eliminated;
- using a trowel. The method is used when the surface has deviations in the plane. In this case, the glue is applied to the corner of the tile, which is pressed in a circular motion against the surface. The glue fills all the irregularities, and its excess goes beyond the edges of the tile. If you have difficulty installing the tile in place, you can not hit it hard with a rubber hammer.
Some masters recommend applying glue not to the tile, but to the surface of the stove. This method is suitable for surfaces of any quality.
The thickness of the adhesive is specified by the manufacturer and is 2-7 mm. In order to even out unevenness, it is allowed to apply glue with a thickness of up to 10 mm, however, after laying the tile, the work must be stopped so that the glue can dry evenly.
How to glue tiles on the stove – tips
- Before putting glue on porcelain tile it should be wet. To do this, hold the surface with a brush or wet it in water. In no case is the tile immersed in water completely.
- The heavier the tile, the thicker the adhesive layer should be and the greater the distance between adjacent tiles.
- It is possible to level a tile on a surface within 10-15 min. after laying. If you do not have time in time, you need to remove the tile, clean it and remove the glue from the surface, and then continue to work.
The second row fits after the first one is fully laid. Work also begins with a corner. To ensure an even gap between the tiles will help crosses, patterns or pieces of other materials having the same thickness
The width of the seam between the tiles (thickness)
On the seams between rows of tiles you need to stop separately. The width of the seam depends on the type of tile, its thickness and weight. And their absence leads to the fact that the tile has nowhere to expand and it bursts. To further the trowel lay down beautifully, the seams must not be completely filled during the laying of the tile, and the excess mixture must be removed with a spatula.
Masters emphasize that stacking more than three rows in one approach is not worth it. To glue well, it is better to take a break for a few hours. Duration of drying depends on the type of glue and manufacturer’s recommendations.
In addition, the horizontal is checked after laying each row of tiles. When a defect is found, there is time to eliminate it.
With this method of laying the first row most often fit straight. This will align the facing with the floor. Next, the calculation is made in one of the ways:
- laid out triangles, wide side down. The upper corners of the tile serve as a guide when checking the level;
- laying goes on a diagonal, then the cord-wharf (marking) is stretched at an angle of 45 °.
The penultimate row is similar to the second. The latter – the first, which is also usually laid out right next to.
Lining work ends with the cleaning of joints (recess for better application of grout) and washing the lined surface of the furnace. After the time required for the glue to fully cure, you can begin to grout.
7. Laying of tile joints (grout)
Grouting the joints between the tiles is done with a special mixture or clay-sand mortar with the addition of coloring pigments. The work is done with a rubber trowel. It is suitable for tile,
The types of tile grouts and their comparative analysis are presented in the table (analysis by grout for clinker tiles)
Tile Grout – Comparison Chart
After applying the grout, the surface is wiped with a damp sponge. This technique will remove the remnants of the mixture. Be careful not to press hard on the sponge, otherwise you may damage the seam.
The final cleaning of the seam on a tile or majolica is done after the grout dries (after 1-2 hours). Visually, this can be seen by the fact that the tile will become lighter. The cleaning is done with a flannel cloth moistened (impregnated) with a solution of a cement-trowel film remover.
The tiling process of the kiln is complete. It now remains to wait 3-4 weeks before trying the stove to work.
Terracotta Tiled Stove – Video
Thus, a little zeal and good instructions for laying tiles on the furnace do it yourself to help achieve the desired result.