Chicken – one of the most popular and common types of poultry. Belongs to the family of pheasants, genus of comb hens. The male chicken is called the rooster, the chick is called the chicken. The progenitor of domestic chicken is considered to be the bankiv jungle chicken. Over the centuries-long period of domestication, people have been able to breed a lot of different species.
Description of chicken.
Depending on the breed, chickens have different weight, about 0.8 – 5 kg, and also differ in feather color, egg color, size and some external features (typical of decorative breeds). Roosters are usually larger than females, they have a brighter plumage and a long tail. With age on the legs of the rooster formed spurs – bone outgrowths. Chickens and roosters have a beard and a comb, which perform the function of a thermostat and ensure normal blood flow to the skin. The crest of the rooster is much larger than that of the chickens, it is hardly noticeable in chickens. The crest forms can be leaf-shaped with teeth along the edge, pod-like, etc. Despite the fact that chickens have wings, they are incapable of long and high flight.
Classification of chickens, types of chickens.
About 200 breeds of domestic chickens are officially registered, but in fact there are more of them. The economic focus of the following types of chickens:
- Egg chickens (characterized by high egg production);
- Meat chickens (large breeds of meat direction);
- Meat chickens;
- Combat chickens (created for cockfighting);
- Decorative hens (have a special plumage);
- The vocal chickens (singing of these chickens is appreciated).
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Hatching eggs chicken.
Domestic chickens reach sexual maturity by 6 months, but not all females are capable of independent breeding of chickens. The laying of eggs in chickens begins in January and lasts until the onset of deep autumn (the molting period). Hatching eggs the hen sits after it has laid 20 – 50 eggs. The duration of hatching eggs is 21 days, but due to the climatic features, chickens can appear on days 20-23.
To test the ability of the chicken to breed, farmers use “liners” – artificial eggs. After the chicken sits on the simulated egg and does not leave the nest within 1 to 2 days, you can lay real eggs under it. The number of eggs in the clutch depends on the size of the bird itself, usually it is 11 – 15 pieces.
The nest for chickens should be separate for each bird so that it is not disturbed by other chickens, animals and humans. During the brooding period, the chicken rises from the eggs several times in order to eat. The hen are afraid to leave their nest for a long time, so the bowls of food and drinking water must be located near the hatching site. They are fed with special foods, enriched with microelements and vitamins. The hen cares for the chickens until the period when it resumes egg production.
Breeding chickens common in most countries of the world. Different breeds of chickens contain in poultry farms and household farms for getting fluff and feather, eggs, meat.
Wild birds of this species live only in India, the Philippines, Indonesia, South China, and Indochina. These are 3 varieties of combed hens: gray jungle, green jungle and Ceylon jungle hens.
What to feed the chickens?
In farming and subsidiary farming, chickens are fed with grain crops: wheat, oats, buckwheat, barley, etc. Greens and food of animal origin are added to grain feeds. To maintain normal digestion, the bird must be given sand and special chalk or lime additives. When free range walking is available for chickens, they feed on grass, insects, and dig worms and larvae from the ground.
Keeping chickens in winter. How to feed laying hens?
In winter, the chicken needs good lighting. The room for keeping chickens should be clean and warm. They feed chickens in winter with combined and grain feeds. Pecking eggs and pale scallops in chicken indicate a lack of vitamins in the diet of poultry. As a preventive measure, after wintering the premises are disinfected.
Chicken is a symbol.
Despite the numerous proverbs and sayings where the chicken is associated with a stupid and blind bird, it is a symbol of many countries and cities. Among the various types of birds depicted on the coins, the chicken occupies the first place – 16 coins are decorated with its image. The rooster was popular even for 575 years BC, this is evidenced by its image on the ancient amphora found in Corinthia.