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This is their personal right and opinion. But having been in Auschwitz and witnessed with my own eyes huge rooms filled with. glasses, tens of thousands of pairs of shoes, tons of cut hair and. children’s things. You have emptiness inside. And her hair moves in horror. The horror of the realization that this hair, glasses and shoes belonged to a living person. Maybe the postman, and maybe a student. Ordinary worker or trader in the market. Or a girl. Or a seven year old child. They have cut, removed, thrown into a common pile. To hundred more same. Auschwitz. The place of evil and inhumanity.

"About 1,300,000 people, of whom about 1,000,000 were Jews, were slaughtered at Auschwitz in 1941-1945. On campus in 1947, a museum was created, which is included in the UNESCO World Heritage List . "

The concentration camp Auschwitz, with all its branches and satellite camps (the complex consisted of three main camps: Auschwitz 1, Auschwitz 2 and Auschwitz 3.), was the largest of the concentration camps and extermination camps established on Polish soil. He was a labor camp and at the same time a center for the immediate extermination of the Jews and was equipped with everything necessary for mass murder and burning of corpses. The destruction was carried out with Zyklon-B gas, previously tested on Soviet prisoners of war.

A young student, Tadeusz Uzhinski, arrived in the first echelon with prisoners. The Auschwitz concentration camp began functioning in 1940, being a camp for Polish political prisoners. The first prisoners of Auschwitz (Auschwitz) were 728 Poles from the prison in Tarnow. At the time of its foundation there were 20 buildings in the camp – the former Polish military barracks. Some of them were converted for mass maintenance of people, and 6 more buildings were additionally built. The average number of prisoners ranged from 13-16 thousand people, and in 1942 reached 20 thousand. Camp Auschwitz became the base camp for a whole network of new camps – in 1941, Auschwitz II – Birkenau was built 3 km away, and in 1943 – Auschwitz III – Monovitz. In addition, in the years 1942-1944, about 40 branches of the Auschwitz camp were built, built near steel mills, factories and mines, which were subordinate to the Auschwitz III concentration camp. And Camps Auschwitz I and Auschwitz II – Birkenau turned into a factory for the destruction of people.

In 1943, a prisoner’s arm number was tattooed. Infants and small children were most often placed on their thighs. According to the State Museum Auschwitz, this concentration camp was the only Hitlerite camp where the prisoners were tattooed.

Depending on the reasons for the arrest, prisoners received triangles of different colors, which, along with the numbers, were sewn onto the camp clothes. Political prisoners relied triangle red, criminals – green. Gypsies and antisocial elements received black triangles, purple Jehovah’s witnesses, and pink homosexuals. Jews wore a six-pointed star, consisting of a yellow triangle and a triangle of the same color as the reason for the arrest. Soviet prisoners of war had a stripe in the form of letters SU. The camp clothes were rather thin and hardly protected from the cold. The linen changed with an interval of several weeks, and sometimes even once a month, and the prisoners did not have the opportunity to wash it, which led to epidemics of typhus and typhoid fever, as well as scabies

The prisoners in camp Auschwitz I lived in brick blocks, in Auschwitz II – Birkenau – mostly in wooden barracks. Brick blocks were only in the female part of Auschwitz II camp. Over the entire existence of the Auschwitz I camp, about 400,000 prisoners of different nationalities, Soviet prisoners of war and prisoners of Corps No. 11, who were awaiting the conclusion of a police Gestapo Tribunal, were in the camp register. One of the disasters of camp life was verification, which checked the number of prisoners. They lasted for several, and sometimes over 10 hours (for example, 19 hours on July 6, 1940). The camp authorities very often declared punitive checks, during which prisoners had to squat or kneel. There were checks when they needed to keep their hands up for a few hours.

Living conditions in different periods were very different, but they were always catastrophic. The prisoners, who were delivered at the very beginning by the first echelons, slept on straw scattered on the concrete floor.

Later introduced litter of hay. These were thin mattresses stuffed with a small amount of it. In the room in which barely placed 40-50 people, about 200 prisoners slept.

With the increase in the number of prisoners in the camp, it became necessary to seal their stay. There were three-tier bunks. On one tier lay 2 people. In the form of litter was, as a rule, rotten straw. Prisoners hid rags and what was. In the camp of Auschwitz (Oswiecim) the plank beds were wooden, in Auschwitz-Birkenau both wooden and brick with wooden flooring.

Toilet camp Auschwitz I compared with the conditions in Auschwitz-Birkenau looked like a miracle of civilization

Dressing hut in Auschwitz-Birkenau camp

Washroom The water was only cold and the prisoner had access to it only for a few minutes a day. Prisoners were allowed to wash extremely rarely, and for them it was a real holiday.

Until 1944, when Auschwitz (Auschwitz) turned into a destruction factory, most of the prisoners were sent to exhausting work every day. At first they worked on the expansion of the camp, and then they were used as slaves at industrial sites of the Third Reich. Daily columns of emaciated slaves went out and went through the gate with a cynical inscription "Arbeit macht frei" (Labor makes free). The prisoner was supposed to perform the work at a run, without a second of rest. The pace of work, meager portions of food and constant beatings increased mortality. During the return of the prisoners to the camp, killed or haggard, who could not move themselves, dragged or carried on wheelbarrows. Meanwhile, a brass band consisting of prisoners played for them at the camp gate.

For each inhabitant of Auschwitz (Auschwitz), block number 11 was one of the worst places. Unlike other blocks, its doors were always closed. The windows were completely bricked up. Only on the first floor there were two windows – in the room where the SS men were on duty. In the halls on the right and left of the corridor were placed prisoners awaiting the verdict of the extraordinary police court, who came to the Auschwitz camp from Katowice once or twice a month. Within 2-3 hours of his work, he passed from several dozen to over a hundred death sentences.

The cramped cells, which sometimes contained a huge number of people awaiting sentence, had only a tiny barred window under the ceiling. And from the side of the street near these windows were tin boxes, blocking these windows from the influx of fresh air

Sentenced before being shot were forced to undress in this room. If there were not many of them on that day, then the sentence was carried out right here.

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If the condemned were many, they were taken to "Death wall"which was located behind a high fence with a blind gate between 10 and 11 buildings. Large numbers of their camp number were applied to the chest of undressed people with an ink pencil (until 1943, when tattoos appeared on the arm), so that later the corpse could be easily identified.

Under the stone fence in the courtyard of block 11, a large wall of black insulating slabs, sheathed with absorbing material, was built. This wall was the last facet of the lives of thousands of people sentenced to death by a Gestapo court for their reluctance to betray their homeland, the attempt to flee and political "crime".

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Fibers of death. The convicts were shot by the report of the report of the Fleet or members of the political department. For this purpose, a small-caliber rifle was used in order not to attract too much attention by the sound of shots. After all, quite close to the stone wall, behind which there was a highway.

In the camp of Auschwitz (aka Auschwitz) there was a whole system of punishments for prisoners. It can also be called one of the fragments of their deliberate destruction. The prisoner was punished for picking an apple or a potato found in the field, coping with need during work or for too slow work. One of the worst places of punishment, which often led to the death of a prisoner, was one of the basements of the 11th corps. Here in the far room there were four narrow vertical sealed punishment cells with dimensions of 90×90 centimeters in the perimeter. In each of them was located at the bottom of the door with a metal bolt.

Through this door, the punished were forced to squeeze inside and shut it to a bolt. In this cage a man could only be standing. So he stood without food and water as much as the SS men wanted. Often this was the last punishment in the life of a prisoner.

In September 1941, the first attempt was made to mass destruction of people with gas. About 600 Soviet prisoners of war and about 250 sick prisoners from the camp hospital in small batches were placed in sealed cells of the basement of the 11th building.

Copper pipelines with gates have already been laid along the walls of the chambers. On them gas came to chambers.

The names of the destroyed people were entered into "Daytime book" camps Auschwitz (Auschwitz)

Found notes left sentenced to death on scraps of paper

In Auschwitz (Auschwitz), in addition to adults, there were also children, who were sent to the camp with their parents. These were the children of Jews, Gypsies, as well as Poles and Russians. Most of the Jewish children died in the gas chambers immediately after arriving at the camp. The rest after strict selection were sent to the camp, where they obeyed the same strict rules as adults.

Children were recorded and photographed in the same way as adults and were designated as political prisoners.

Most Jews doomed to death arrived in Auschwitz-Birkenau with the conviction that they were being taken out. "on settlement" to the east of Europe. This was especially true of Jews from Greece and Hungary, to whom the Germans even sold non-existent building plots and lands or offered jobs in fake factories. That is why people aimed at extermination to the camp often brought with them the most valuable things, jewelry and money.

Upon arrival at the unloading platform, all things and valuables were taken from the people, SS doctors carried out the selection of deported people. Those who were recognized as disabled were sent to gas chambers. According to the testimony of Rudolf Hoess, there were about 70-75% of those who arrived.

Items found in the warehouses of Auschwitz after the liberation of the camp

Model of the gas chamber and crematorium II Auschwitz-Birkenau. People were convinced that they were sent to the bath, so they look relatively calm.

Here, prisoners are forced to take off their clothes and distill into the next room, imitating a bath. Under the ceiling were located shower holes through which water never flowed. In a room about 210

After that, the corpses were transported to the crematorium kilns, where the fire was buzzing continuously. In case of overflow of furnaces or during the time when pipes were damaged from overload, the bodies were destroyed in the places of burning behind the crematoria. All these actions were carried out by prisoners belonging to the so-called group. "sonderkomando". At the peak of the activity of the Auschwitz-Birkenau concentration camp, its number was about 1,000 people.

Photo taken by a member of the zonderkomando, which shows the process of burning those dead people.

In camp Auschwitz (Auschwitz) the crematorium was located behind the camp

Here in 1941 and 1942, Soviet prisoners of war and Jews from ghettos located in Upper Silesia were destroyed.

In the second hall there were three twin ovens in which up to 350 bodies were burnt during the day.

In one retort, 2-3 corpses were placed.

Crematorium built the company "Topf and sons" from Erfurt, which in 1942-1943, installed furnaces in four crematoriums in Brzezinka.

Case number 5 is now the worst. Here are the material evidence of Nazi crimes in Auschwitz (Auschwitz)

Thousands of points, the arms of which intertwined like the fate of people who shot them before the last campaign in "bathhouse"

The next room is half full of personal care products – shaving brushes, toothbrushes, combs.

Hundreds of artificial limbs, corsets, crutches. People with disabilities were unsuitable for work, so on arrival at the camp only one fate was waiting for them – the gas chamber and the crematorium.

A two-storey room, which until the first floor overlap was filled with metal utensils, which were in the suitcases of prisoners – bowls, plates, kettles.

Suitcases with the names of the deported people written on them.

All the property that the deported people brought was sorted, stockpiled and the most valuable was taken to the Third Reich for the needs of the SS, the Wehrmacht and the civilian population. In addition, the prisoners used the objects of the prisoners. For example, they addressed the commandant with written requests to give out carriages, clothes for babies, and other objects.

One of the most sinister rooms – a huge room, on both sides littered with mountains of shoes. Which was once worn by living people. Take it off before "a bath".

Silent witnesses of the last minutes of their masters

The Red Army liberated the camp at Auschwitz and found about 7,000 kg of hair in bags unpacked by Germans in warehouses. These were the remnants that the camp authorities did not have time to sell and send to the factories. An analysis conducted at the Institute of Forensic Examination showed that they contain traces of hydrocyanic acid – a toxic component that was part of "Zilona B". German companies produced tailoring bortovka from human hair.

Found baby things.

With their form it is impossible to withstand. I want to get out of here quickly

And again a mountain of shoes. Child.

The steps of the premises of the barracks, in which the expositions of the State Museum Auschwitz (Auschwitz) are nowadays, are crushed by millions of human legs, which for almost 70 years have visited this museum of horror

The gates of the death factory were closed on January 27, 1945, when the 7,000 prisoners left by the Germans waited for the Red Army detachments.

In the entire history of Auschwitz, about 700 escape attempts were made, 300 of which were crowned with success, but if someone escaped, then all his relatives were arrested and sent to the camp, and all the prisoners from his unit were killed. It was a very effective method to prevent escape attempts. In 1996, the German government announced on January 27, the day of the liberation of Auschwitz, the official day of the memory of the victims of the Holocaust.

SS (him. SS, abbr. From him. Schutzstaffel – “security detachments”, in 1933-1945 in Germany, when writing, used a special typographical ligature in the form of a double rune “zig”: ᛋᛋ) – paramilitary NSDAP formations.

The name is derived from the abbreviation of the German military aviation term Schutzstaffel (inf.) – “cover squadron (protection).”

Initially, the SS was intended for the personal protection of the leader of the Nazi Party A. Hitler and were part of the assault detachments. From 1934 the SS were separated from the assault detachments as a separate structure of the Nazi Party and were personally subordinated to Hitler and the SS Reichsführer G. Himmler. In December 1939 the number of SS was 243.6 thousand people (including 223.6 thousand people in the General SS). From December 1934, the formation of the SS reinforcement units began, which in June 1940 received the name of the SS Troops (by March 1945 the number of SS Troops personnel was 830 thousand).

In 1933-1945, the SS was in charge of concentration camps and death camps, in which millions of people died. The SS was the main organizer of terror and the extermination of people on the basis of race, political convictions and state identity both in Germany and in the countries occupied by it.

The SS is involved in a multitude of war crimes and crimes against humanity. The Nuremberg Tribunal recognized “all persons who were officially admitted to the SS members” as criminals (with the exception of members of the “so-called cavalry SS formations” and individuals who ceased to be SS members until September 1, 1939)

After this area of ​​Poland was occupied by German troops in 1939, Auschwitz was renamed Auschwitz. The first concentration camp in Auschwitz became Auschwitz 1, which later served as the administrative center of the entire complex. It was founded on May 20, 1940 on the basis of brick two- and three-storey buildings of the former Polish, and earlier Austrian, barracks. Due to the fact that it was decided to create a concentration camp in Auschwitz, the Polish population was evicted from the territory adjacent to it. This happened in two stages; the first took place in June 1940. At that time, about 2 thousand people who lived near the former barracks of the Polish army and the buildings of the Polish tobacco monopoly were evicted. The second stage of the eviction – July 1940, he embraced the inhabitants of the streets Korotkaya, Polnaya and Legionov. In November of the same year, the third eviction occurred, and it affected the district of Zasole. Evictions continued in 1941; In March and April, villagers of Babice, Buda, Rajsko, Brzezinka, Broshkowice, Plavy, and Harmenzhe were evicted. In total, people were evicted from a territory of 40 km², which was declared the sphere of interest of the camp; in 1941–1943, ancillary camps of an agricultural profile were created here: fish farms, poultry and cattle farms.

The first group of prisoners of 728 Polish political prisoners arrived at the camp on June 14, 1940. For two years, the number of prisoners ranged from 13 to 16 thousand, and by 1942 it reached 20,000 prisoners. The SS selected some prisoners, mostly Germans, to spy on the others. The prisoners of the camp were divided into classes, which was visually reflected by stripes on their clothes. 6 days a week, except Sunday, prisoners were required to work. The exhausting work schedule and the scant food caused many deaths. In the camp of Auschwitz 1, there were separate units that served for various purposes. In blocks 11 and 13, punishments were made for violators of the camp rules. People of 4 people were placed in the so-called “standing cameras” measuring 90×90 cm, where they had to stand all night. More stringent measures implied slow killings: the guilty or imprisoned in a sealed chamber, where they died from lack of oxygen, or starved to death. Between blocks 10 and 11 there was a torture yard, where prisoners were tortured and shot. The wall, which was shot, was reconstructed after the war.

On September 3, 1941, by order of the deputy commandant of the SS camp Oblturmführer Karl Fritsch, the first test of gas cycling by Cyclone B was carried out in block 11, which resulted in about 600 Soviet prisoners of war and 250 other prisoners, mostly sick. The experience was considered successful, and one of the bunkers was redesigned into a gas chamber and crematorium. The camera functioned from 1941 to 1942, and then it was rebuilt into an SS bomb shelter. Subsequently, the camera and crematorium were recreated from the original parts and still exist as a monument to the cruelty of the Nazis.

Auschwitz 2 (also known as Birkenau, or Brzezinka) is what one usually means when speaking about Auschwitz itself. In it, in one-story wooden barracks, hundreds of thousands of Jews, Poles, Russians, Gypsies and prisoners of other nationalities were kept. The number of victims of this camp amounted to more than a million people. The construction of this part of the camp began in October 1941. In total there were four construction sites. In 1942, section I was put into operation (there were placed male and female camps); in 1943–44, camps that were located at construction site II (Gypsy camp, male quarantine, male, male hospital, Jewish family camp, storage rooms and the “Depotlager”, that is, the camp for Hungarian Jews) were put into operation. In 1944 they started building the third construction site; In June, and July 1944, Jewish women lived in unfinished barracks, whose names were not included in the registration camp books. This camp was also called “Depotlagger”, and then “Mexico”. Section IV has not been built up.

New prisoners arrived daily on trains to Auschwitz 2 from all of occupied Europe. The arrivals were divided into four groups.

The first group, which constituted about ¾ of all those brought in, went to the gas chambers for several hours. This group included women, children, old people and all those who did not pass the medical examination for their full fitness for work.

In Auschwitz 2 there were 4 gas chambers and 4 crematoriums. All four crematoriums were commissioned in 1943. The exact date of entry into operation: March 1 – the crematorium I, June 25 – the crematorium II, March 22 – the crematorium III, April 4 – the crematorium IV. The average number of corpses burned in 24 hours, taking into account a three-hour break per day for cleaning the furnaces in 30 furnaces of the first two crematories, was 5,000, and in 16 furnaces of crematories I and II – 3,000.

The second group of prisoners was sent to slave work at industrial enterprises of various companies. From 1940 to 1945, about 405 thousand prisoners were assigned to the factories in the Auschwitz complex. Of these, more than 340 thousand died from diseases and beatings, or were executed. There is a case when the German industrialist Oskar Schindler saved about 1,000 Jews by buying them out for work in his factory. 300 women from this list got to Auschwitz by mistake. Schindler managed to rescue them and take them to Krakow.

The third group, mostly twins and dwarfs, went to various medical experiments, in particular to Dr. Josef Mengele, known by the nickname “angel of death”.

The fourth group, predominantly women, were selected for the “Canada” group for personal use by the Germans as servants and personal slaves, as well as for sorting the personal property of prisoners arriving at the camp. The name “Canada” was chosen as a mockery of Polish prisoners – in Poland the word “Canada” was often used as an exclamation at the sight of a valuable gift. Previously, Polish immigrants often sent gifts home from Canada.

Auschwitz was partially serviced by prisoners, who were periodically killed and replaced with new ones. A special role was played by the so-called “sonderkommando” – prisoners who took bodies from gas chambers and transferred them to the crematorium. About 6,000 SS employees followed.

By 1943, a resistance group formed in the camp that helped some prisoners escape, and in October 1944 a group of prisoners from the sonderkommando destroyed one of the crematoria. In connection with the approach of Soviet troops, the Auschwitz administration began the evacuation of prisoners to camps in Germany. On January 25, the SS men set fire to 35 warehouse barracks, which were full of items taken from the Jews; They did not have time to take out.

When the Soviet soldiers occupied Auschwitz on January 27, 1945, they found there about 7.5 thousand surviving prisoners, and in partially surviving warehouse barracks – 1 185 345 men’s and women’s suits, 43 255 pairs of men’s and women’s shoes, 13 694 carpets, a huge number of toothbrushes and shaving brushes, as well as other small household items. More than 58 thousand prisoners were taken or killed by the Germans.

Several Jewish prisoners from the Sonderkommando, including the leader of the Resistance group, Zalman Gradovsky, wrote letters that they hid in those pits in which they buried dust from crematoriums. 9 such notes were later found and published.

In memory of the victims of the camp in 1947, Poland created a museum in Auschwitz.

Auschwitz 3 was a group of about 40 small camps set up at factories and mines around a common complex. The largest of these camps was Manovits, taking its name from a Polish village located on its territory. It began operations in May 1942 and was assigned to IG Farben. Such camps regularly visited doctors and selected the weak and sick for the gas chambers of Birkenau.

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On October 16, 1942, the central leadership in Berlin issued an order to build a kennel in Auschwitz for 250 dogs; it was planned broadly and allocated 81,000 marks. During the construction of the facility, the point of view of the camp veterinarian was taken into account and all measures were taken to create good sanitary conditions. Do not forget to take a large area for lawn with dogs, built a veterinary hospital and a special kitchen. This fact deserves special attention if one imagines that at the same time with this concern for animals, the camp authorities were completely indifferent to the sanitary and hygienic conditions in which thousands of prisoners of the camp lived. From the memoirs of the commandant Rudolf Hoess: "The SS Reichsführer hoped that dogs could be trained so that they would always surround the prisoners like a flock of sheep, and thus the shoots would be impossible. But all attempts to achieve this have failed, because people are not cattle."

In the entire history of Auschwitz, about 700 escape attempts were made, 300 of which were crowned with success, but if someone escaped, then all his relatives were arrested and sent to the camp, and all the prisoners from his unit were killed. It was a very effective method to prevent escape attempts. In 1996, the German government announced on January 27, the day of the liberation of Auschwitz, the official day of the memory of the victims of the Holocaust.

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