This guidance document establishes the requirements for organizing and conducting observations on the content of pollutants in bottom sediments of water bodies as part of the existing system of state monitoring of water bodies.
The guidance document is intended for use by the territorial bodies of Roshydromet, the Federal Agency for Water Resources (Rosvodresources) and other ministries and departments that monitor the status of water bodies.
In this guidance document references are made to the following documents:
GOST 27384-2002 Water. Norms of measurement errors of indicators of composition and properties
GOST R 54496-2011 Water. Determination of toxicity using green freshwater unicellular algae
MI 2335-2003 GSI. Internal quality control of quantitative chemical analysis results.
Note – Links to other regulatory documents are given in the table.
biotesting (biological water testing): Assessment of water quality by the response of aquatic organisms that are test objects.
water body: The concentration of water on the surface of the land, or in rocks, which has characteristic forms of distribution and features of the regime.
reservoir: A water body in the deepening of land or in rocks, which has characteristic forms of distribution and features of the regime.
watercourse: A water body characterized by the movement of water in the direction of a slope in the deepening of the earth’s surface.
water pollution: Pollutants, microorganisms or heat are released into a water body.
water pollutant, pollutant: A substance in water that causes a violation of water quality standards.
Source of water pollution: Source that introduces water pollutants, microorganisms or heat into water bodies.
water quality: Characteristics of the composition and properties of water, determining its suitability for specific water uses.
maximum permissible concentration of substances in water; MAC: The concentration of a substance in water, above which water is unsuitable for one or several types of water use.
condition of a water body: Characteristics of a water body in terms of its quantitative and qualitative indicators as applied to the types of water use.
sewage: Water discharged after use in household and industrial human activities.
AAS – atomic absorption spectroscopy;
HPLC — High Performance Liquid Chromatography;
GLC, gas-liquid chromatography;
GC-MS – gas chromatography-mass spectrometry;
IR – infrared spectrometry;
ETS – acute toxic effect;
PAH – polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons;
Synthetic surfactants – synthetic surfactants;
TLC – thin layer chromatography;
UV – ultraviolet spectrometry;
OCP – organochlorine pesticides;
HTD – chronic toxic effect;
pH is a pH value.
a) the regularity and complexity of their implementation;
b) representativeness of sediment sampling sites;
c) the consistency of the observation programs and the timing of the sampling of water and bottom sediments for the purpose of subsequent analysis (comparison) of monitoring data;
d) the use of a differentiated list of controlled chemical indicators that take into account the specific composition of the wastewater of the main production facilities that are the source of pollution of the observed water body (Appendix A), . An exemplary list of pollutants that can accumulate in bottom sediments is given in Appendix B;
e) carrying out an integrated assessment of the toxicity of bottom sediments on the basis of biotesting to identify areas and areas of accumulation of pollutants in them and to establish the influence of sources of pollution of the water body. Theoretical considerations concerning the nature of the toxicity of bottom sediments and the principles of biotesting are given in Annexes C and D;
e) ensuring the unity and reliability of measurements in the analysis of water and sediment samples using certified measurement methods.
a) near the discharge of wastewater from industrial enterprises and agricultural land;
b) in areas with repeated occurrences of violations of water quality standards in accordance with , , elevated concentrations of pollutants in bottom sediments or their toxicity , , in places of possible influence on the state of water bodies of the most significant sources pollution;
c) at multipurpose use points (regime observations, observations of removal to the seas, in transboundary waters and
a) an inventory of the main sources of pollution and the composition of pollutants in wastewater;
b) identification of the most polluted parts of watercourses and reservoirs;
c) study of bathymetric charts, locations, hydrological and hydrodynamic data;
d) a description of the distribution and movement in the water body of sediments, their types and other characteristics are given in Appendix D;
e) determination and clarification of observation points, stations of observations and a program of observations for the content of pollutants in bottom sediments of water bodies.
a) on a ship course;
b) in areas of water bodies with depths up to 10 m;
c) in the zones of wind mixing of waters;
d) on the shallows of rivers and
Biotest put on laboratory test objects: chironomids, daphnia, ceriodafnias, rotifers, algae, paramecia.
It is possible to use organisms from natural populations that inhabit the studied water body and are captured in its uncontaminated areas:
a) larvae of insects living in water (chironomids, beetles, ephemeris);
c) benthic crustaceans (water donkey, scuds, gammarus).
a) their high toxicity;
b) biochemical resistance;
c) the ability to sorption on suspended substances with subsequent deposition to the bottom of the water body;
d) accumulation of bottom sediments, aquatic biota and animals.
The priority for observations are mercury, arsenic, copper, zinc, cadmium, lead, chromium.
When identifying the source of pollution of a water body, an additional sampling of bottom sediments is specially conducted.
– comparing the mass fraction of each of the pollutants in the sediment samples collected in the observation sections and in the background section, provided that the types of sediment are identical, either in absolute form or in relative form in the form of pollution factors, pollution factors representing the ratios of detected concentration to background . The disadvantage of the method is the practical absence of currently unpolluted bottom sediments and the choice of background alignment for many water bodies is problematic.
– comparing the concentrations of the detected substances (mainly heavy metals) contained in the surface single-centimeter layer and background bottom sediments selected at the same point before the period of their noticeable contamination at a depth of at least 20 cm. The fraction of these values is the coefficient of contamination .
– by comparing the ratio of the absolute mass fraction of the analyte to the average characteristic mass fraction of each analyte for different types of bottom sediments. Depending on the magnitude of the multiplicity (less than or greater than one), it is possible to judge the degree of contamination of bottom sediments in the studied period of time , . This method is applicable in the presence of long-term observations of the state of bottom sediments in a particular water body under constant anthropogenic impact.
Concentrations of pollutants in samples of bottom sediments are compared with corrections for the size of particles of bottom sediments: a fraction of less than 63 or 125 microns is analyzed in the event that the material of the fraction is at least 30% of the total sample.
a) inclusion in the tables of primary information,
b) processing measurement data using statistical methods, converting data into values, allowing to judge the temporal and (or) spatial changes;
c) data presentation in the form of graphs, which allows detecting trends at a glance; reflection on the graph of control parameters allows us to represent the situation in development. Charts can be presented in linear form, in the form of histograms, pie charts and
d) evaluation of data obtained from different sources, in conjunction with information containing geographic references;
e) data aggregation by the method of deriving generalized quality indicators (with a large amount of data).
– native, untreated sample;
– water extract from bottom sediments;
For biotesting "unprocessed" samples of bottom sediments use a bioassay on zoobenthos organisms according to the RD
For biotesting of the aqueous extract, biotesting is used on daphnia, ceriodafnias, algae, paramecia, rotifers and fish according to recommendations P
When using a set of bioassays, the overall toxicity assessment is derived on the basis of the following principle: if at least one of the bioassays a sediment sample has a toxic effect, it is considered toxic (the results of different bioassays may not match due to differences in the sensitivity of test objects to toxic effects). Patterns of reactions of organisms on the toxic effects of chemicals, water or sediment are given in Appendix R.
To assess the level of toxic pollution of bottom sediments of a water body, it is recommended to use table 1.
Table 1 – Assessment of the level of toxic pollution of bottom sediments of a water body
Type and nature of bottom sediments
Sections of a water body with toxicity in samples
Toxic pollution level
Il predominantly fine-grained
In some areas
Il small and large
On a significant part of the plots
Silt of all types, silt sand
On all sites
Bottom sediments of all types, surface stones, gravel, pebbles
– pollution control during sampling of sediments;
– control of the stability of the calibration characteristics of the measurement methods used;
– control of one of the characteristics of measurement error (error, repeatability or reproducibility).
Contamination control during sampling of sediments can be organized with standard samples of sediments. At the same time, it is possible to estimate the possible contamination of the sample due to unprepared equipment for sampling, improper storage and transportation of samples, unskilled work of the operator.
Monitoring the stability of the calibration characteristics (for methods involving the presence of a calibration curve) is carried out similarly to the procedure described in the RD
To control the error using standard samples of bottom sediments. In the absence of standard samples, working samples of bottom sediments are used in which known additives of the components to be determined are added.
Precision testing is carried out on standard samples or working samples under repeatability or reproducibility conditions if the component being determined is stable. Control standards are the characteristics of the error given in the measurement method.
Oil production and transportation
Production of gasoline, kerosene, diesel fuels, fuel oil, etc.
Gas production and transportation.
Coal mining. Recycling and use of fossil coal
Electricity production (hydro, hydroelectric station, thermal power plant, nuclear power plant).
Mining production: mining of iron, manganese and chromite ores, non-metallic materials; enrichment and agglomeration of ores; coke production
Mining and enrichment of ore and sand. Production of non-ferrous metals and their alloys: aluminum, lead-zinc, nickel-cobalt, tin, titanium-magnesium, rare and trace metals, etc.
Production of equipment: metallurgical, mining, oil, energy.
Machine-tool and tool production: forge-and-press production, general engineering, railway engineering, sea and river shipbuilding, agricultural engineering, aviation industry
Petrochemical; coke, chemical and pharmaceutical production; production of synthetic resins and plastics, man-made chemical fibers, synthetic rubber; pesticides, mineral fertilizers; sulfuric acid production; soda production
Manufacture of pulp, paper, cardboard and other products
Production of rosin, turpentine, ethyl alcohol, furfural, fodder yeast, etc.
Textile, leather manufacture
Agricultural production: crop production, livestock, agrochemical services for agriculture, processing of agricultural raw materials, food industry
Petroleum products, detergents, chemical reagents (nitrolignin, carboxymethylcellulose, polyacrylamides, etc.), 3–5-nuclear PAH, their derivatives, heterocyclic nitrogen, sulfur-containing compounds (methyl, dimethylbenzothiophenes, etc.), heavy metals
Petroleum products, synthetic surfactants, PAHs, their nitrogen-, sulfur-containing heterocyclic derivatives (methyl, dimethylbenzothiophenes, naphtothiophenes, etc.), heavy metals, phthalates
– extraction and processing of gas and gas condensate
Hydrocarbons, PAHs, their sulfur-containing heterocyclic derivatives, chlorine and amino derivatives of other cyclic substances, surfactants
PAHs, petroleum products, heavy metals (As, V, Pb, Cr, Cd, Ni, Zn, etc.)
– coal mining and enrichment
Heavy metals (Fe, Cd, Ni, Pb, Zn, Cu, Mn, Be, Co, Sr, etc.), PAHs, their nitrogen- and sulfur-containing heterocyclic derivatives, petroleum products
PAHs, their oxygen-, nitrogen-, sulfur-, halogen-containing heterocyclic derivatives (benz-, dibenzcarbazoles, benz-, dibenzacridines, benzquinolines, etc.), coal tar, terpene, aromatic alcohols, heavy metals (Rb, Cd, Hg, Mn , Al, Fe, etc.), dibenzfurans, PCBs, surfactants, hydrocarbons, cyanide compounds, carbon black, etc.
Heavy metals, coal tar, petroleum products, synthetic surfactants, ore dressing reagents (oils, etc.), PAHs, their oxygen-, sulfur-, nitrogen-containing heterocyclic derivatives, polychlorinated dioxins, PCBs, cyanide compounds, amines, etc.
– production of iron, steel, rolled products, meta-alloy
Metals (Al, Zn, Cu, Fe, Pb, Co, Cr, Ni, Mn, Cd, etc.), petroleum products, surfactants, polychlorinated dioxins, PCBs, cyanide compounds, etc.
– production of non-ferrous metals and their alloys
Heavy metals, synthetic surfactants, petroleum products, homemethyl, dioctyl, dibutyl phthalates and others.
Lignosulfonates, PAHs, petroleum products, synthetic surfactants, heavy metals (Mn, Fe, Mo, V, Cu, Co, etc.), chlorine, organic sulfur compounds, molecular sulfur, dimethyl, dibutyl phthalates, etc.
PCP, synthetic surfactants, lignosulfonates, etc.
Production of varnishes and chamfers
Phenol-formaldehyde resins, synthetic surfactants, hydrocarbons, PCP, phthalates, nitro, chlorophenols, derivatives of aromatic amines, acids, etc.
Pesticides, detergents, heavy metals (Zn, Cu, Fe, etc.), petroleum products
– meat processing, dairy and fish production
Fats, high-molecular fatty organic acids, alcohols, petroleum products, synthetic surfactants, etc.
Purification facilities, domestic wastewater
Petroleum products, synthetic surfactants, fats, high molecular weight fatty acids, dimethyl, dioctyl, dibutyl phthalates, organochlorine compounds, chlorine, organic sulfur, cyanide compounds
The toxicity of bottom sediments for hydrobionts, especially for benthos, is more dangerous than the toxicity of water, since it is a long-term active factor.
The development of biotesting methods is closely related to the success of aquatic toxicology, ecotoxicology and hydrobiology. The main method of assessing the toxicity of chemicals for fisheries for a long time were only biotests, based on the registration of fish survival. Currently, the list of methods of biotesting and their scope of application has expanded significantly. They are used to characterize the ecological and toxicological state and ecological well-being of the aquatic ecosystem. When developing MPC, sets of organisms (test objects) representing various trophic links of the aquatic ecosystem, as well as organisms of commercial value, valuable and endangered species, are used. These are biotests on crustaceans (daphnia, ceriodaphnia), algae, macrophytes, protozoa, rotifers, fish and other aquatic organisms.
To assess the level of toxic contamination of bottom sediments, it is preferable to use biotests on the representatives of bottom biocenoses – zoobenthos (see RD
The presence of toxicity is judged by the manifestations of negative effects on test objects that are considered indicators of toxicity. An indicator of toxicity is a test reaction, changes in which are recorded during a toxicological experiment for a certain time (exposure).