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Description relevant to

Latin name: Insulin

  • ATH code: A10A
  • Active substance: Insulin (Insulin)
  • As a rule, in one milliliter of the drug in the form of a solution or suspension contains 40 U of the active substance.

    Part antidiabetic drugs may include insulin, extracted from pancreas glands animals (pigs or cattle), human insulin or a biosynthetic substance obtained by genetic engineering.

    The composition of the auxiliary components is different for each specific drug.

    Release form

    Insulin preparations are available in the form of solutions and in the form of a suspension in vials and special cartridge systems (cartridges, cartridges and systems designed for use with a syringe pen).

    The injection solution is released in sterile glass bottles of 5 and 10 ml, with activity, as a rule, from 20 to 100 IU in 1 ml of solution.

    The substance intended for medical use is a water-soluble, hygroscopic white powder containing 3.1% sulfur.

    Solutions look like clear, colorless or slightly yellowish liquid with acidity (pH) from 2.0 to 3.5). To prepare the solution, the crystalline powder is diluted in water for injection (Aqua pro injectionibus), acidified with hydrochloric acid (Acidum hydrochloricum) with the addition of glycerin (Glycerinum) and 0.25–0.3% solution phenol (Phenolum) or tricresol (Tricresolum) for canning.

    Suspensions of prolonged action come in pharmacies in sterile vials of 5 and 10 ml. Each bottle is sealed with a rubber stopper with a running-in aluminum cap.

    The most physiological control profile hypoglycemia characterized by a two-phase drug Novomix, which is a two-phase suspension, which is 30% composed of ultrashort-acting insulin aspart and 70% of protamine-crystallized insulin aspart.

    Today, scientists have been able to solve the problem of insulin passing through the stomach (because the substance is protein, it is destroyed under the influence of digestive juices) and also create an effective remedy for diabetics in tablets.

    pharmachologic effect

    Insulin preparations belong to the group of agents that affect digestion and metabolic processes in the body.

    Endogenous insulin is the most important. carbohydrate metabolism regulator in the body, exogenous is a specific sugar reducing agent.

    The main functions of insulin:

    • regulation of carbohydrate metabolism;
    • stimulation of the absorption of glucose by the tissues and the processes of its conversion into glycogen;
    • facilitating the entry of glucose into tissue cells;
    • increased glycogen stores in muscle tissue;
    • stimulation of peptide synthesis;
    • reduced protein consumption;
    • stimulation of glucosyltransferase, polyenzyme complex of pyruvate dehydrogenase, hexokinase enzyme;
    • lipase inhibition, the action of which is aimed at the activation of fatty acids of adipose tissue;
    • lipoprotein lipase inhibition, which reduces “cloudiness” blood serum after eating a high fat diet.

    Insulin affects carbohydrate metabolism. This is because the substance stimulates the transport glucose through cell membrane, strengthens its utilization by tissues, and also contributes to its biotransformation to glycogen in the liver.

    By inhibition of glycogenolysis (the process by which glycogen breaks down to glucose) and gluconeogenesis (education process glucose from non-carbohydrate sources: of amino acids, fatty acids and

    Effect of substance on lipid metabolism manifested in suppression lipolysis (fat splitting). As a result, admission decreases. free fatty acids at systemic blood flow.

    Insulin prevents education acetone (ketone) bodies in the body, stimulates fatty acid synthesis and education later esters. He also takes part in protein metabolism: enhances transport amino acids through cell membranes, stimulates peptide synthesis, reduces tissue consumption proteins, inhibits the process of transformation amino acids in oxocarboxylic acids.

    Pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics

    The mechanism of action of insulin is associated with its ability to interact with a specific receptor, which is localized on plasma cell membrane, and form insulin receptor complex.

    In conjunction with insulin receptor it enters the cell where it affects the processes phospholation of cellular proteins; There are no accurate data on further reactions inside the cell.

    Insulin affects almost all organs and tissues in the human body, while its main targets are liver, muscle and adipose tissue.

    The extent to which insulin absorption will be complete and how quickly the effect of its use will come depends on the site of administration (more precisely, the degree of blood supply to the subcutaneous fatty tissue at the injection site), the dose to be administered (more than 12-16 IU of solution should not be injected into one place / suspension), the concentration of the active substance in the preparation, the type of insulin, the rate of local blood flow, muscle activity at the site of injection.

    The action profile of the drug is subject to significant fluctuations in both different people and the same person.

    Getting into blood, insulin binds to α- and β-globulins. Typically, the binding index is in the range of 5 to 25%.

    Education antibodies provokes the development of insulin resistance, however, when using modern, well-purified drugs, this phenomenon occurs quite rarely.

    Half-life of of blood do not exceed 10 minutes. Most caught in blood insulin is exposed in liver and kidney enzymatic hydrolysis, which is catalyzed proteolytic enzymes.

    The substance is excreted very quickly: about 60% of its output by the kidneys, about 40% – cookies (40%), slightly less than 1.5% is eliminated with urine in its purest form.

    Indications for use

    The use of insulin is indicated mainly for the treatment of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (type I diabetes). In certain conditions, it is advisable to assign the drug to patients with non-insulin dependent diabetes (type II diabetes).

    Short-acting drugs are used for sugar reduction in some forms schizophrenia, furunculosis, thyrotoxicosis, stomach diseases, chronic hepatitis, in the initial stages of development liver cirrhosis.

    In addition, they are often prescribed as anabolic drugs (funds for weight gain) to patients suffering from general exhaustion, and patients suffering from nutritional deficiencies.

    The tool can also be used as one of the components of “polarizing” solutions, which are used to treat acute coronary insufficiency (condition due to spasm of coronary vessels).

    Insulin bodybuilding

    It is believed that the use of insulin in sports – this is a real find. At the same time, the required effect is ensured by the use of short-acting drugs, and, in particular, in combination with some anabolic or androgenic agent.

    What happens if a healthy person is given insulin? Under the influence of the hormone rises permeability of muscle cell membranes and, consequently, the penetration of these substances to the cell is accelerated and facilitated. As a result, even at the lowest dose. steroids have a much more pronounced result than in the case when they are used independently.

    So, how to take insulin in bodybuilding? First, do not overeat (the excess nutrients entering the body accumulate in the form of fat). Secondly, reduce the maximum use simple carbohydrates. And, thirdly, to focus not on weight, but on the reflection in the mirror and the centimeter tape (it is necessary to focus on the volume of the tibia, biceps, hip). The appearance of folds of fat in the abdomen is evidence of an improper dose.

    Contraindications

    Insulin should not be prescribed for diseases that occur with hypoglycemia: at hemolytic jaundice, acute hepatitis, pancreatitis, liver cirrhosis, jade, amyloid dystrophy, urolithiasis, decompensated heart defects; peptic ulcer, affecting the stomach and duodenum.

    With caution, insulin preparations are prescribed:

    • diabetic patients who have found coronary insufficiency or disturbed blood circulation in the brain;
    • patients with thyroid diseases;
    • at addison disease (adrenocortical insufficiency, which occurs with the defeat of more than 90% of tissue adrenal glands);
    • at renal failure.

    Side effects

    When subcutaneously administered, insulin may develop. lipodystrophy (pathology that is characterized atrophy or hypertrophy of adipose tissuea) at the injection site.

    Modern insulins are thoroughly cleaned, therefore allergic reactions against the background of their use is extremely rare, but the likelihood of such side effects is not excluded.

    In case of development allergic reactions An immediate patient type requires immediate specific desensitization and drug replacement.

    Instructions for use of insulin

    Features of insulin administration

    According to the instructions for use, insulin is allowed to be injected under the skin, into a muscle or into a vein. It follows that only short-acting drugs can be administered intravenously and only if the patient has symptoms. precomatosis or he fell into diabetic coma.

    Introduction to the vein of drugs that are produced in the form of a suspension, is contraindicated. Before injection, the medication should warm to room temperature. This is due to the fact that cold insulin is absorbed much more slowly.

    It is preferable to use a plastic syringe for injection (not glass). The reason for this is that the so-called “dead” space is larger in a glass syringe than in a plastic syringe. This in turn reduces the accuracy of dosing of the drug and leads to insulin losses.

    Insulin syringes-pens with special solution-filled cartridges installed in them are considered to be convenient to use. They are used for the introduction of solutions of short, medium and mixed (combined) action. When using such systems before you enter the drug, you do not need to type it or mix it every time.

    The needles used in modern syringes and insulin syringes are so thin and short that they cause minor painful sensations when injected. Needle thickness is usually from 0.3 to 0.4 mm), the length does not exceed 12 mm (usually from 8 to 12 mm).

    Where to prick the drug?

    The question “Where are insulin given?” Arises quite often.

    The fastest absorption in blood flow observed after subcutaneous injection in anterior abdominal wall, more slowly the substance is absorbed into blood from the shoulder and front of the thigh, the slowest absorption is observed after the drug is injected into the subcutaneous fatty tissue under the scapula or on the buttock.

    Therefore, in clinical practice, the optimal route of administration for continuous therapy is subcutaneous injection.

    Considering the fact that from different parts of the body the drug is absorbed into the blood at different speeds, doctors recommend prick short-acting drugs (look like a clear solution) in the abdominal area, while avoiding the navel area, and long-acting drugs (cloudy solution) – in the thighs or buttocks.

    Another important rule is that the administration areas alternate, following a strict order in accordance with the time of day (for example, in the morning a short-acting solution is injected into the stomach, in the afternoon – in the thigh, in the evening – under the skin of the buttocks.

    This is due to the fact that for different sites the calculation of the drug for the amount of XE will be different (as at different times of the day).

    Insulin Injection Algorithm Subcutaneously

    The main rules for administering insulin are: before you give an injection, you need to check the suitability of the drug, its type, duration and dosage, wash your hands and ensure the purity of the place of injection;

    The insulin injection technique is as follows:

    • Before the introduction of the drug is warmed in the hands to room temperature. Vial should not be shaken, as this is fraught with the formation of bubbles.
    • A bottle cap is wiped with 70º alcohol.
    • Air is drawn into the syringe for the required number of insulin units, after which it is introduced into the vial, and the required dose of the drug + up to 10% more is collected.
    • The dose of the solution is adjusted by holding the syringe at eye level (if you change the angle, a vision error of 1-5ED is possible)
    • Panging the bottle, remove the bubbles.
    • Do not treat the skin at the injection site with alcohol, since alcohol destroys insulin and, as a result, the patient may form lipodystrophy. If this is necessary, the skin simply wash and wipe dry. Drug administration through clothes is allowed.
    • An injection is made in the recommended areas of drug administration: 2.5 cm from the navel, 3 cm from the shoulder, thigh, upper part of the buttock. The skin fold is formed with the thumb and forefinger so as not to capture the muscle layer (when it enters the muscle, the drug is absorbed into the blood faster than from the subcutaneous layer). How to properly capture the skin, shows the following illustration:
    • To enter the solution should be half an hour before a meal (insulin is absorbed within an hour, so the meal should be approximately 15-30 minutes after injection).

    How to put a syringe during the injection

    The needle is inserted into the skin at an angle of 45º, if the injection is made into the skin fold, at an angle of 90º – if the injection is done without a skin fold.

    The fold is formed, if it is intended to introduce the medicine into the shoulder or thigh, the fold is not made, if it is intended to introduce the medicine into the stomach or buttocks (since there is a thick layer of subcutaneous tissue).

    How to prick the drug?

    After the drug is injected, it is necessary to count to 5 (or 10), pull out the needle and press down the injection site with your finger. Do not massage! Due to rapid absorption may develop. hypoglycemia.

    Video instruction on how to prick insulin with a pen

    What is the best insulin?

    There is no clear answer to this question. Primary selection of insulin (as well as a set of doses, and the introduction of the drug) is carried out in a hospital, depending on the severity of the disease and the characteristics of the clinical situation, the general condition of the patient, the speed of onset sugar lowering effect and the duration of its action.

    Dose calculation and insulin administration

    The dose of the drug is selected individually in each case.

    Short-acting drugs are intended for administration under the skin or into the muscle (in some cases, intravenous administration is allowed). These solutions act quickly, the effect of their use is relatively short.

    Short-acting insulins are administered 15-20 minutes before a meal from one to several times (depending on the characteristics of the disease) during the day. Sugar-reducing effect develops after 15-20 minutes and reaches its maximum after 2 hours (the total duration of action does not exceed 6 hours).

    Medications of this type are used mainly in the hospital in order to establish the necessary dose for the patient, as well as with diabetic coma and precoma (conditions that require a rapid change in insulin activity in the body).

    In addition, short-acting solutions are used as anabolic drugs. For this purpose, they are usually used in small doses (from 4 to 8 IU once or twice a day).

    Drugs of prolonged (prolonged) action have several dosage forms and are characterized by different duration of effect (for example, semilong, long, and ultralong insulins).

    As a rule, the effect is noted within 10-36 hours. The use of drugs of this type can reduce the number of daily injections.

    Back adrenal fatigue

    Most often, long-acting insulin is a suspension. They are inserted under the skin or into the muscle, intravenous administration is unacceptable. It is also forbidden to use drugs from this group when coma and precoma.

    Selecting the drug, you need to make sure that the period during which sugar lowering effect expressed most strongly, coincided in time with the reception write.

    If this is necessary, it is allowed to mix in one syringe simultaneously two long-acting drugs.

    In some cases, patients need not only long-term maintenance of the required level glucose, but also in its rapid normalization. To do this, they are prescribed the introduction of drugs, both short and long-acting.

    As a rule, the injection of a suspension of prolonged action is made in the morning, before the first meal, but it can be administered at a different time of day.

    Injections recommend that patients be combined with a special diet for diabetics. The energy value of food in each case should be determined by the patient’s body weight during the period of treatment and the degree of his physical activity.

    With a lack of nutrition and increased physical activity, the patient is shown to use at least 3000 calories per day, with excessive nutrition and hypodynamia The number of calories should not exceed 2000 (optimally – approximately 1700).

    How to get medicine in an insulin syringe?

    If it is necessary to inject insulin of the same type, the syringe piston is dragged down to the mark corresponding to the required number of units, after which the cork of the vial with the drug is punctured and, pressing the piston, let air into it.

    Next, you should turn the bottle with the syringe upside down and, holding them in one hand at eye level, pull the piston down to a point slightly above the desired dose.

    It is better to make a puncture in a cork with medicine in its very center, using for this purpose a thick needle for ordinary syringes. To introduce air and take medicine, an insulin syringe is used – its needle is inserted into the puncture site.

    If air bubbles are noticeable in the syringe, you need to slightly click your fingers over the syringe and gently move the piston to the mark of the desired dose.

    Insulin dose calculation

    The calculation and the introduction of a dose of the drug produced, starting from the fact that the highest daily dose of the drug should not exceed 1 U per kilogram of the patient’s body weight.

    Recommendations on how to correctly calculate the dose of medication are given depending on the characteristics of the course of the disease.

    In diabetes grade I, the dose is:

    • 0.5 U / kg for patients who have recently been diagnosed with the disease;
    • 0.6 U / kg – if the compensation lasts for a year or more;
    • 0.7 U / kg – in the case of unstable compensation;
    • 0.8 U / kg – in case of decompensation;
    • 0.9 U / kg – if the disease is complicated ketoacidosis;
    • 1.0 U / kg for women in the last 3 months of pregnancy.

    How to calculate the insulin dose and not make a mistake? To avoid mistakes, you can use the example below.

    Calculation for drugs of prolonged action at a dose of 0.6 U / kg and patient weight 75 kg: 0.6 * 75 = 45. You need to take 50% of the resulting value and round down (to 20). Thus, before the morning meal, you should enter 12 units, and the remaining 8 – before the evening.

    The correct calculation for short-acting drugs at a dose of 0.6 U / kg and a patient’s weight of 75 kg is made according to the formula: 0.6 * 75 = 45; 45-20 = 25. Therefore, from 9 to 11 units must be entered before the morning meal, from 6 to 8 units – before dinner, the rest – from 4 to 6 units – before dinner.

    Overdose

    Exceeding the prescribed dose of the drug inevitably provokes the development hypoglycemic syndrome, which is accompanied low blood sugar and can cause death to the patient.

    With the introduction of a lethal dose, the patient must immediately provide first aid.

    Symptoms hyperglycemic states are:

    • thirst;
    • increased urination;
    • fatigue;
    • increased dryness of the oral mucosa and skin;
    • pruritus;
    • blurred vision;
    • disturbance of consciousness;
    • arrhythmia;
    • precoma;
    • coma.

    The consequence of an overdose of insulin is dysfunction of the brain (which is particularly dangerous for the elderly). The patient may develop paralysis or paresis, mental abilities are greatly reduced.

    It should also be remembered that high doses harm vessels. Against the background of their use reduced arterial elasticity and deteriorating blood supply to the brain.

    In the initial stages hypoglycemia normalize the level of sugar will help sweet tea, use of honey or fruit juice.

    With comatose state immediate introduction into the vein 10-20 ml of a concentrated solution is required glucose (20-40%). If it is not possible to inject a solution into a vein, it is allowed to do:

    • intramuscular injection of 1-2 mg glucagon (glucagon is a physiological insulin antagonist);
    • subcutaneous injection of 0.5 ml epinephrine hydrochloride 0.1% solution;
    • enema using 150 ml of 10% solution glucose.

    Interaction

    Sugar-reducing effect increases with insulin in combination with:

    • α-adrenoreceptor blockers;
    • acetylsalicylic acid;
    • clofibrate;
    • fluoxetine;
    • MAO inhibitors;
    • cyclophosphamide;
    • methyldofoy;
    • tetracyclines;
    • ifosfamide.

    The sugar-reducing effect is reduced when using the drug in combination with:

    • chlorprothixene;
    • oral contraceptives;
    • GKS;
    • diazoxide;
    • heparin;
    • lithium carbonate;
    • saluretic agents;
    • nicotinic acid and its derivatives;
    • thyroid hormones;
    • diphenin;
    • sympathomimetics;
    • tricyclic antidepressants.

    Terms of sale

    On prescription. The Latin insulin recipe must be prescribed by the attending physician.

    Storage conditions

    How to store insulin?

    The drug is stored in a dark, cool place. The optimal temperature for storage is considered to be the temperature from +2 to +8 degrees Celsius (best in the refrigerator, away from the freezer).

    Freezing of drugs from this group, as well as excessive heating, is unacceptable.

    Temperatures above 30-35 degrees Celsius are disastrous for medication.

    For people leading an active lifestyle, the best solution is a thermo bag for insulin.

    When is the drug considered spoiled?

    In case of violation of at least one storage condition, the drug should be thrown out. Also, a solution that for one reason or another has changed its color, and a solution in which lumps, suspensions, fibers have appeared, cannot be used.

    A suspension is considered spoiled if it does not form a homogeneous white or whitish suspension when mixed.

    It is important to remember that only ultrashort, short and fast-acting insulins should remain transparent and, in addition, also insulin glargine prolonged action.

    Shelf life

    The drug is suitable for use within 24 months from the date of issue.

    When storage conditions are met, the opened vial of insulin is suitable for use within a month.

    special instructions

    What is insulin?

    Wikipedia states that the hormone insulin is a substance that has a multifaceted effect on the course of metabolic processes in almost all tissues.

    Immunoreactive insulin makes the plasma membrane more permeable to glucose, which provides a faster and easier transition of the last of the blood into the intracellular space.

    The lack of insulin synthesis causes metabolic disorders, resulting in the development of diabetes mellitus.

    Immunoreactive insulin – what is it? What body produces insulin?

    To the questions “what kind of gland does insulin make?” Or “where does insulin are made?” Wikipedia answers that the hormone insulin is produced by the β-cells of the islets of Langerhans (localized predominantly in the tail pancreas (PJV) clusters of endocrine cells).

    The hormone synthesized by the body is called insulin or immunoreactive insulin (abbreviated to IRI).

    The initial source for the production of insulin preparations, providing an opportunity to maintain a normal lifestyle for people whose body does not produce the hormone independently in the quantities it needs, are pancreas pigs and cattle.

    Just over 30 years ago to treat patients diabetes mellitus started using human insulin. To obtain it resorted to one of two methods:

    • the transformation method of porcine insulin, which involves replacing the amino acid it contains alanine on threonine;
    • method of genetic engineering, which involves changing a certain section of DNA.

    Classification of insulin preparations

    Currently used drugs are divided according to a number of signs:

    • duration of action;
    • by source of origin;
    • depending on the pH of the solution (may be neutral or acidic);
    • by the presence in the preparation of preservatives (phenol, methylparaben, cresol, phenol-cresol);
    • depending on the concentration of insulin (40, 80, 100, 200, 500 units per ml).

    Classification depending on the duration of the action:

    • preparations of ultrashort action;
    • short-acting drugs;
    • drugs of prolonged action (including the average duration of action (intermediate) and long-acting);
    • long-acting drugs;
    • combined action drugs (bi-phase agents).

    Ultrashort action characterized by lispro, aspart, and glulisine.

    Short acting insulin, names:

    • insulin soluble human genetically engineered;
    • soluble human semisynthetic;
    • soluble pork monocomponent.

    Intermediate insulin is insulin isophane (human genetically engineered); insulin isophane (human semi-synthetic); insulin zinc compound suspension.

    What are the types of long-acting insulin? This category includes glargine and detemir.

    Biphasic preparations – semi-synthetic human biphasic; biphasic human genetically engineered; aspart biphasic.

    In accordance with the classification, depending on the degree of purification, preparations obtained from animal tissues are divided into:

    Types of insulin depending on the origin:

    • pork (denoted by the letter C; monopikovy – SMP, monocomponent – SMK);
    • cattle (beef, denoted by the letter G; monopikovy – GMP, mono-component – GMK);
    • human (denoted by the letter H).

    The level of insulin in the blood – the norm and options for deviations from it

    An indicator that shows the level of hormone in of blood healthy person, is in the range of values ​​from 3 to 20 ICED / ml.

    Reducing it is a prerequisite for development diabetes. In this case, the cause of serious consequences can be an excess of hubbing in the blood.

    Increased insulin in the blood – what does it mean?

    Insulin inhibits the process synthesis of glucose from proteins and lipids. Thus, with an increase in the hormone concentration of more than 20 µED / ml (hyperinsulinism), symptoms begin to appear in a person, as with insulin deficiency. hypoglycemia – irritability increases, memory deteriorates and concentration of attention decreases, general fatigue increases (with time it becomes chronic), increases blood pressure and

    Causes of elevated insulin

    If insulin is elevated in of blood, the reason may lie in the fact that a person has eaten too much food rich in carbohydrates (i.e., glucose).

    Since carbohydrate-containing foods contribute to a sharp increase in the level of the hormone, you don’t need to eat before you donate blood for analysis for an insulin test ( of blood do on an empty stomach).

    Dysfunction can also trigger an increase in hormone levels. β-cells PZHZH (in this case, they talk about primary, pancreatic, hyperinsulinism), as well as violation of the secretion of some other hormones (for example catecholamines or corticotropin), damage to the nervous system, hypersensitivity insulin receptors (in all these cases, the diagnosis is “secondary, or extrapancreatic, hyperinsulinism”).

    Cause dysfunction PJAH, becoming a cause of high insulin, can:

    • tumors on PJAH, which contribute to the development of the hormone;
    • decrease in concentration produced in the body glucagon;
    • hyperplasia of the islets of Langerhans.

    Increased insulin is also often observed with excess weight. An increase in hormone concentration indicates that PJAH works with additional load.

    How to reduce the concentration of insulin in the blood

    Before treating elevated insulin, it is necessary to establish the cause that provoked it. As a rule, after its removal, the patient’s condition returns to normal.

    To avoid an attack hypoglycemia, should eat something sweet or introduce a solution glucose. In severe cases, you may need to introduce glucagon or adrenaline rush.

    How to lower hormone levels at home? To normalize the level of insulin, you should first adjust your diet. Meals should be fractional (optimally eat in small portions at least five times a day), and the daily amount of carbohydrate foods should not exceed 150 g.

    At the same time, oatmeal, buckwheat porridge, low-fat kefir and milk, savory curd cheese, bran, eggs, vegetables, fish, and some fruits should prevail in the diet.

    Physical exercise and weight loss also contribute to normalization.

    What sugar is prescribed insulin for?

    Analysis to determine the concentration of the hormone for differentiation of the form of the disease is done to people who have not received insulin preparations before. This is due to the fact that the body reacts to the introduction of exogenous hormone by producing antibodies.

    A high level with normal sugar is one of the symptoms. metabolic syndrome. Condition is regarded as prediabetes.

    If insulin is elevated and sugar is normal, they talk about insulin-resistant glucose intolerance and diabetes. It may also indicate a number of other insulin-resistant states.

    A high level with low sugar is often an indicator pathological hyperinsulinemia. In some cases, high concentrations of circulating of blood hormone linked to hypertension, diseases of the heart and blood vessels.

    A low level with normal sugar also requires referring to an endocrinologist to determine the cause of such a condition and conduct the necessary tests (HLI typing, test for antibodies to insulin, determine the level of antibodies to GAD, and test for glycated hemoglobin).

    The decision on the need for the appointment of injections is made, based not on the indicators of sugar level, but taking into account the reasons that provoked such an increase.

    As a rule, the introduction of the drug becomes inevitable if the indicators of the concentration of sugar in the blood are kept for a long time within 12 mmol / l, and the tablets and a strict diet do not lead to their decrease.

    Get the necessary data to the doctor allows decoding the blood test for insulin.

    The norm in women and men is the same. Indicators of 3.3-7.8 mmol / l indicate noormoglycemia. The rate of blood sugar on an empty stomach is from 3.3 to 5.5 mmol / l. After a meal, it is normal to consider an indicator that does not exceed 7.8 mmol / l.

    The insulin rate after glucose loading is up to 7.7 mmol / l. If the index is in the range of 7.8-11.1 mmol / l, they indicate a violation of glucose tolerance.

    Humalog (insulin lispro), insulin Levemir, Humulin NPH, Humulin R, Humulin M, insulin Apidra, insulin Humalog Mix 50, insulin Tape (NM and SPP), NovoRapid FlexPen, insulin Protafan NM Penfill, insulin Actrapied, insulin Rapid (Insuman Rapid GTinsulin Bazal-N, Human recombinant insulin and

    Insulin and alcohol

    The drug reduces the tolerance of alcohol. With simultaneous use of alcoholic beverages also increases the risk of hypoglycemia.

    Insulin during pregnancy

    Treatment limitations diabetes using insulin during pregnancy and lactation is not.

    Many people who are diagnosed diabetes, looking at the forums for information on a particular drug, asking for reviews of insulin Lantus or for example insulin reviews Levemir.

    However, it is extremely important to remember that the selection of the type of drug and the optimal dose is carried out exclusively by the attending physician. Adequate therapy is a guarantee that the patient will be able to lead a normal, full-fledged lifestyle, so self-medication is unacceptable.

    Some patients believe that insulin does not help, and its reception is accompanied in some cases with complications. The drug has a pronounced effect on the body when low blood glucose concentrations.

    Taking it in the early stages of the development of the disease, and not as a last resort, helps prevent or delay some potential complications.

    Besides people with diabetes mellitus, reviews of the drug are left to fans of heavy sports. Focusing on them, we can conclude that in bodybuilding the tool has proven itself as an unsurpassed anabolic.

    Insulin Price

    The cost in pharmacies varies depending on the manufacturer and the characteristics of a particular drug. For example, the price of insulin Actrapid in Ukraine – from 166 to 435 UAH, and NovoRapid FlexPen You can buy an average of 850 UAH (more accurately know how much insulin costs by contacting a specific pharmacy).

    Insulin price Lantus in large cities of Ukraine (for example, in Kiev or in Donetsk) – approximately 1050 UAH, to buy insulin NovoRapid possible at 780-900 UAH, price Protafana NM – from 177 UAH, Humalog – from 760 to 1135 UAH, a bottle with the drug Insuman bazal will cost about 72 USD, the price of insulin Levemip – from 1280 UAH.

    The average price of a pen-syringe and packing needles to her 800-850 UAH. Buy insulin pen NovoPen 4 can be about 700 USD, but the cost of the handle NovoPen Echo – about 1000 UAH.

    Insulin tablets (drug Novonorm) costs from 150 to 200 UAH.

    You can buy medicine in ordinary pharmacies, online pharmacies, as well as through diabetic communication forums, where buy / sell ads are often found. Through these same resources, you can sell insulin.

    Where to buy insulin in Moscow and St. Petersburg? The drug is sold in almost all pharmacies, information on them is regularly updated on the Internet.

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