Augmentin is a penicillin antibiotic that contains a combination of amoxicillin and potassium clavulanate. Amoxicillin is an antibiotic in a group of drugs called penicillins. Amoxicillin fights bacteria in the body. Potassium clavulanate is a form of clavulanic acid that has similarities with penicillin. Potassium clavulanate combats bacteria that are often resistant to penicillins and other antibiotics. Augmentin is used to treat various infections caused by bacteria, such as sinusitis, pneumonia, ear infections, bronchitis, urinary tract infections, and skin infections. In addition, Augmentin can be used for other purposes not listed here.
Do not take antibiotics regularly. Instead of relying on the most appropriate antibiotics for the treatment of sinusitis, the immune system should be strengthened.
Do not use Augmentin if you are allergic to amoxicillin or potassium clavulanate, or if you have ever had liver problems caused by this therapy. Do not use it if you are allergic to any other penicillin antibiotic, such as amoxicillin (amoxyl, augmentin, dispermox, moxatag), ampicillin (principle, unazine), dicloxacillin (dicillin, dinapene), oxacillin (lycrocylone, lyclosillin (dicillin, dinapen), oxacillin (zyrophane, pyclic oxillin (dicillary, dinapen), oxacillin (zyrophylene, cycloxyl) LA, PC Pen VK, Pfizerpen) and others.
Before taking augmentin, tell your doctor about your liver problems (or a history of hepatitis or jaundice), kidney disease or mononucleosis, or if you are allergic to cephalosporin antibiotics such as cefdinir (omnifef), cefproxil (cefzil), cefuroxime (ceftin) , cefalexin (keflex) and others.
When switching from one form of the drug to another (tablets, chewable or prolonged action), use only the new form and concentration prescribed for you. This medicine may not be as effective or harmful if you do not use the pill form exactly as prescribed by your doctor.
In terms of safety for pregnant women in the US, the drug is assigned to category B. Presumably, Augmentin will not harm an unborn baby. The doctor must know if you are pregnant or plan to become pregnant during treatment. Amoxicillin and clavulanate potassium can penetrate into breast milk and be harmful to the baby while breastfeeding. Do not use this medication without telling your doctor that you are breastfeeding. Augmentin can make birth control pills less effective. Ask your doctor about using non-hormonal birth control methods (such as condoms, diaphragms, spermicides) to prevent pregnancy while taking augmentin.
The drug in the form of a liquid and chewable tablets may contain phenylalanine. Talk to a specialist before using these forms of augmentin if you have phenylketonuria (PKU).
Video about augmentine
Side effects augmentina
Note: This contains information about the side effects of amoxicillin / clavulanate. Some dosage forms described here may not apply to branded augmentin. In addition, side effects may not be fully represented. You should always consult a doctor or health professional for medical advice.
This information relates to the following forms of amoxicillin / clavulanate: powder for the preparation of oral suspension, tablets for oral use, chewable tablets for oral use, tablets for oral use with prolonged action.
In addition to its necessary effects, amoxicillin / clavulanate may cause some undesirable effects. In case of any of the listed undesirable effects, medical care may be required. In such a situation, you should immediately consult with a medical specialist.
- Urticaria or scars
- Skin redness
- Itching in the vagina or genital area
- Pain during intercourse
- Skin rash
- Thick, white discharge from the vagina without odor or with a faint odor
- Bloody or turbid urine
- Significant reduction in urination or urine
- Swelling of the feet or calves and ankles
- Prevalence unknown
- Spasms or tenderness in the abdominal region or stomach
- Pain in the back, legs, or stomach
- Black with a touch of tongue
- Black tarry chair
- Bleeding gums
- Blistering, peeling or peeling of the skin
- Blood in the stool
- Blood from the nose
- Chest pain
- Cough or hoarseness
- Clay colored chair
- Cracks in the skin
- Diarrhea, watery and severe, which can also be bloody
- Dark urine
- Difficulty breathing
- Difficulty with movement
- Trouble swallowing
- Heat with or without chills.
- General feeling of tiredness or weakness
- General edematism
- Heavy menstruation
- Increased thirst
- Pain in the muscles and joints
- Severe, hives-like hives, swelling of the face, throat, tongue, eyelids, lips, hands, feet, feet or genitals
- Light chair
- Loss of appetite
- Decrease in body temperature
- Back or side pain
- Nausea or vomiting
- Muscle rigidity
- Painful or difficult urination
- Pain, swelling, or redness in the joints
- Pale skin
- Spots on the skin in the form of red dots
- Puffiness of the eyelids or around the eyes, face, lips or tongue
- Red formations on the skin, often with a purple center.
- Red, irritated eyes
- Red, swollen skin
- Scaly skin
- Sore throat
- Ulcers, ulcerations or whitish spots on lips or mouth
- Swollen glands
- Chest tightness
- Difficulty breathing with effort
- Unpleasant smell of breath
- Unusual bleeding or hematoma
- Unusual tiredness or weakness
- Unusual weight loss
- Pain in the upper abdomen or stomach
- Vomiting blood
- White spots in the mouth and throat or on the tongue
- White spots with a rash
- Yellow eyes and skin
Seek help immediately if any of the following signs of overdose appear when taking amoxicillin / clavulanate:
- Pain in the abdomen or stomach
- Turbid urine
- Significant reduction in urination or urine
Some of the undesirable effects potentially developing while taking amoxicillin / clavulanate may not require medical attention. When your body gets used to the drug during therapy, such unwanted effects may disappear. In addition, your doctor will be able to tell you about ways to reduce or prevent some of these undesirable effects. Contact a specialist if any of the listed side effects persist, cause anxiety, or if you have any questions about them.
- Dry mouth
- Irregular heartbeat
- Discoloration of teeth
- Inability to sit quietly
- Trouble sleeping
- Burning sensation in chest or abdomen
- Stomach upset
- Redness, swelling, or soreness of the tongue
- Stomach upset
- Swelling or inflammation of the mouth
General information about the side effects of the drug
It refers to amoxicillin / clavulanate in the following forms: powder for preparation of oral suspension, tablets for oral use, chewable tablets for oral use, tablets for oral use with prolonged action.
Side effects are generally classified as mild and transient. Less than 3% of patients in clinical trials discontinued treatment due to side effects. Among the most frequent adverse reactions associated with immediate-release formulations are diarrhea / loose stools (9%), nausea (3%), skin rashes and urticaria (3%), vomiting (1%) and vaginitis (1%). Tablets with prolonged action are most often associated with diarrhea (14.5%), vaginal mycosis (3.3%), nausea (2.1%) and loose stools (1.6%).
Amoxicillin has been associated with hemorrhagic, sometimes inflammatory colitis, which usually affects the ascending colon. In addition, in patients who develop severe and prolonged diarrhea during therapy with amoxicillin-clavulanate or after it, pseudomembranous colitis, the causative agent of which is Clostridium difficile, should be taken into account.
The incidence of diarrhea appears to increase with higher doses, and decreases with dosing twice a day (immediate release formulations).
Among the adverse events of the gastrointestinal tract are diarrhea, nausea, indigestion, abdominal pain, gastritis, vomiting, generalized abdominal cramps, stomatitis, glossitis, mucocutaneous candidiasis, enterocolitis, black tongue-torn, motor disorders of the small intestine, hemorrhagic colitis and pseudomembranous colitis. When taking amoxicillin, it was reported that colitis and pseudomembranous colitis developed due to the causative agent Clostridium difficile.
Hypersensitivity reactions were noted in 10% of patients and may be a skin rash, angioedema, urticaria, itching, serum-sickness reactions (urticaria or skin rash along with arthritis, arthralgia, myalgia and often fever), erythema multiforme, Stevens-renal syndrome, molygia and often fever). (rarely) acute generalized exantmatous pustus, vasculitis, toxic epidermal necrolysis, and exfoliative dermatitis. In rare (up to 0.2%) cases, anaphylaxis has been reported. Hypersensitivity may play a role in some cases of amoxicillin / clavulanate-induced renal and hepatic toxicity. Urticaria rash, erythematous maculopapular rash, edema, hypotension, fever, eosinophilia and shortness of breath have been associated with amoxicillin hypersensitivity reactions.
Hypersensitivity reactions to amoxicillin will most likely occur in patients with a history of allergies, hay fever, asthma, or urticaria.
Dermatological side effects include rash, fixed erythema drug, bullous pemphigoid, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, erythema multiforme, and exfoliative dermatitis. Amoxicillin rashes are more common in patients with unrecognized infectious mononucleosis. This rash does not necessarily indicate a lifelong hypersensitivity to amoxicillin.
Three out of four patients with infectious mononucleosis and amoxicillin-induced rash develop hypersensitivity to amoxicillin and ampicillin on skin tests and analysis of lymphocyte transformation. Two of these patients had sensitization due to side chain.
In cases of amoxicillin-clavulanate-induced hepatotoxicity, biopsy results usually reveal evidence of cholestatic injury. However, hepatocellular and mixed (cholestatic and hepatocellular) injuries have also been reported. In many cases, hepatotoxicity may be associated with hypersensitivity. In some patients, the onset of symptoms was delayed, and after therapy their manifestation stopped. Long-term treatment may increase the risk of hepatotoxicity. Elderly patients may be at increased risk of developing amoxicillin-clavulanate jaundice. Deaths are rare, but have been reported.
The provocative test with amoxicillin alone did not result in a relapse of hepatitis. However, the provocative test with amoxicillin-clavulanate led to a recurrence of liver injury. Thus, clavulanic acid may be a hepatotoxic part of the drug.
For patients suffering from liver disease, frequent monitoring of liver function during amoxicillin-clavulanate therapy is recommended.
Hepatic side effects included a moderate increase in serum transaminases (ALT and / or AST). Hepatic dysfunction (including cholestatic jaundice and hepatitis, increased ALT and / or AST, alkaline phosphatase, and / or bilirubin) is rarely reported. There are also reports of rare cases of jaundice, ductopenia, cholestatic hepatitis, granulomatous hepatitis, hepatic necrosis, and hepatocellular damage. Worldwide, fewer than 1 deaths were reported for approximately 4 million recipes. When using amoxicillin, cases of liver cholestasis and acute cytolytic hepatitis have been reported.
A 45-year-old woman developed extensive crystalluria, gross hematuria and acute anuric renal failure after 12 days of intravenous administration of amoxicillin-clavulanate 3 times a day at a dose of 2 g of amoxicillin. The crystals consisted of amoxicillin trihydrate. Renal failure and hematuria disappeared 6 days after discontinuation of antibiotic use.
Renal side effects rarely include crystalluria, hematuria, acute renal failure, and acute interstitial nephritis, often associated with fever, rash, and eosinophilia.
Hematologic side effects caused by penicillins include thrombocytopenia, anemia, hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenic purpura, eosinophilia, agranulocytosis, and leukopenia. They are believed to be caused by hypersensitivity and, as a rule, are reversible after stopping the medication. Mild to moderate thrombocytosis has been reported in less than 1% of patients taking amoxicillin-clavulanate, and 3.6% of patients receiving prolonged-release tablets. It has also been reported on purpura, pancytopenia, granulocytopenia, medullary aplasia, prolongation of prothrombin time and transient neutropenia.
Amoxicillin has been shown to rarely cause hemolytic anemia. A case of cessation of the maturation of the bone marrow, which led to neutropenia and Schönlein-Genoch syndrome, was associated with amoxicillin-clavulanate.
In a patient undergoing tooth extraction and taking warfarin anticoagulants, prolonged bleeding (PT and INR), and a decrease in hemoglobin and hematocrit are noted. Bleeding developed due to vitamin K deficiency as a result of the depletion of the internal intestinal flora, which produces vitamin K, from using amoxicillin to prevent subacute bacterial endocarditis.
Immunological side effects caused by amoxicillin include mucocutaneous candidiasis and vulvovaginal fungal infection.
In rare cases, adverse effects on the nervous system include agitation, anxiety, confusion, behavioral changes, dizziness, seizures, headache, insomnia, and reversible hyperactivity. Rare cases of psychosis associated with amoxicillin therapy have been reported, but it may be associated with a primary infection or concomitant medications. Drowsiness and aseptic meningitis have been rarely reported with amoxicillin.
From the genitourinary system
Among the urogenital side effects, genital candidiasis (2.1%).
Amoxicillin-clavulanate can cause false-positive urine glucose tests in patients taking clinitest tablets (R). During therapy with amoxicillin-clavulanate, glucose oxidase enzyme tests should be used.
Among other side effects rarely occur discoloration of the teeth on brown, yellow or gray, especially in pediatric patients. Brushing or brushing at the dentist reduced or eliminated discoloration in most cases.
Respiratory side effects arising from amoxicillin include cough and rhinorrhea.
General name: amoxicillin and potassium clavulanate
Film coated tablets
Considering the same content of clavulanic acid in augmentin tablets of 250 mg and 500 mg (125 mg, in the form of potassium salt), two tablets of the drug of 250 mg are not equivalent to one tablet of 500 mg. Therefore, you cannot replace two 250 mg tablets with one 500 mg tablet.
Usually, adults are prescribed 1 tablet of 500 mg every 12 hours or 1 tablet of 250 mg every 8 hours. In cases of more serious infections and infections of the respiratory tract, the drug is dosed as follows: 1 tablet of 875 mg every 12 hours or 1 tablet of 500 mg every 8 hours.
Usually for patients with impaired renal function there is no need to reduce the dose, if the damage is not serious. Seriously ill patients in whom the glomerular filtration rate is