Artificial and synthetic fibers
There are two types of raw materials related to unnatural :. Artificially called what is obtained by chemical processing of natural raw materials.
POLYESTER Polyester fiber – synthetically obtained fiber, mainly using polyethylene terephthalate, however, technological maps using polycarbonates and LCD polyesters come across. Among the common examples of fiber: sloter, teril, trevira, etc.
Properties: the material shows excellent resistance to physical impact, as well as to organic solvents. Polyester is insensitive to the effects of ultraviolet radiation, keeps its shape well when heated, thanks to which folds and pleats hold onto clothes perfectly. Resistant to microorganisms, moths, other harmful insects.
Handling: most often, polyester is excellent in high temperatures, so it can be easily washed at 40 degrees and at 60 (although it’s better to get acquainted with the instructions on the label). However, by heating the fabric above the specified temperatures, you may encounter wrinkling. Regarding the detergent, which can be used during the stitching, start from the fact that you can use any agent for the white fabrics, and for thin fabrics for the colored ones. So you significantly extend the life of your stuff. Clothes from this material dries perfectly itself, so you should not dry it in your washing device. For further handling of polyester clothing, always pay attention to the instructions on the label. So, it is best to iron this fabric through a damp cloth in the “Silk” or “for soft tissue” mode.
POLYAMIDE Popular material whose performance is significantly closer to the properties of natural fabrics. The most famous brands of polyamide: perlon, nylon and helanka.
Properties: this material perfectly demonstrates its properties in the summer, because it is perfectly breathable, eliminating discomfort for the owner, and is also particularly resistant to sunlight and exposure to saline sea water. In addition, polyamide is considered one of the most durable materials.
Handling: polyamide is treated in the same way as polyester fabrics,
VISCOSE Viscose is a material that, depending on the processing, can be similar to silk, wool or linen. It turns out due to the chemical effect on natural raw materials (cellulose), although it is one of the most “natural” fibers, among the above. The essence of the treatment lies in the complete dissolution of the cellulose and its “punching” through the small holes of the desired diameter, thereby obtaining viscose fibers. It is possible to give the desired appearance by varying the parameters of production, and the luster, fineness and crimpiness of the fibers will change, which will ultimately affect the nature of the material obtained. For example, a thickening of the thread leads to the fact that viscose fibers take the form of linen.
Handling: it is necessary to wash it in a sparing mode, not exceeding the set temperature (30-35 degrees) with a means for thin fabrics. Viscose is a vibrant and tender fiber that cannot be twisted or dried in a centrifuge. It is best to dry the material by gently wringing or blotting with a dry cloth. It is strictly forbidden to dry the item in a drying device.
ACETATE AND TRIACETATE acetate and triacetate fibers are obtained from cellulose acetate in
Properties: acetate fiber exceeds viscose by elasticity, it does not wrinkle very much when used, it is perfectly amenable to dyeing, which makes it possible to obtain a brighter range of colors. Triacetate fiber is less hygroscopic, compared to acetate, better absorbs moisture, which negatively affects the properties of clothing and color stability. Soft, high-quality material that lets the sun through.
Handling: it is best to wash with hands, in no case do not use solvents or detergents based on acetone, since this type of fabric dissolves in it and may not be washed through. Good for high temperatures (washing is possible at 70 degrees), but do not overdo it, acetate decomposes at 210 degrees, and triacetate at 290. When ironing, it is best to use low temperatures and iron on the reverse side in a gentle manner.
ELASTAN Elastic additive to the fabric, allowing the material to stretch more than 6 times, and then again take the original form. Easy, differs in good air permeability. In terms of composition, it is a segmented polyurethane material that is strong enough to break and abrade, but soft and flexible. It is badly crumpled, does not form folds at a sock.
Handling: in principle, there is a general tendency in handling fabrics – washing in a gentle way, low temperatures, neat ironing of things. The material is very convenient, often to remove pollution, just rinse the thing in water. It is very important not to use drying devices, as well as to closely monitor the rest of the fabrics in the composition, in order to more accurately select the washing mode.
POLIACRYL Polyacryl or acrylic – a material very reminiscent of wool, more durable to tear, resistant to external influences, and also more easily amenable to dyeing. Most often, it is used together with wool to make knitwear and outerwear.
Handling: the fabric does not wrinkle, washing is carried out at 30 degrees, does not need ironing, as it dries perfectly by itself. Like other types of synthetic fibers, it is best to refrain from drying with drying devices.
MERYL (MERYL) Meryl is a new generation of fiber that surpasses natural fabrics in durability and resistance to external influences, but just as easily passes air, as well as lighter relative to natural fibers. The material does not pass moisture, and also does not require special care, has a high ability to drape, suppress the development of microorganisms and a wide variation of textures.
NYLON Nylon is one of the most famous materials from polyamide solution, which is the oldest synthetic material that instantly subdued humanity. The main distinctive properties, especially at the time of its first appearance, were high wear resistance, gloss and lightness. Whole footage weighed significantly lighter than its natural counterparts, while at the price was just as much cheaper. It is resistant to the action of many chemical and biological reagents, does not fade under the influence of ultraviolet rays, it is perfectly colored, which is especially unusual under the influence of artificial lighting, thanks to which the fabric is poured and plays with a mass of shades.
The material has a couple of drawbacks: it is strongly electrified, and can also cause an allergic reaction. Smooth and pleasant to the touch material – one of the sides of the coin, nylon badly lets in air, creating a greenhouse effect, and also does not absorb moisture, adding discomfort to the owner during operation.
Nylon is based on acetic acids and amides, so the material cannot be washed in chlorine-containing solvents. If pure nylon is a rather problematic and complex material, then its addition to natural fibers or other synthetics masks its negative sides to the maximum, while increasing durability and aesthetics.
ELASTAN LYKRA (ELASTAN LYCRA) Lycra is one of the well-known brands of polyurethane fibers, which is representative of the traditional qualities of synthetics. Elasticity, lightness and thinness of the fabric allows the manufacturer to not experience any special problems in the production of things from lycra, and the special breathability, durability and drapeability are separate advantages for the buyer. Rarely used in 100% of the product and much more often in the complex, giving the product the desired character and shape.
Handling: washing at low temperatures, at which it is not recommended to use rinses, since they can adversely affect not only the quality of lycra, but also other elastane components in the material.
WOOL Sheep is considered to be the main source of woolen fibers. Also used wool llamas, alpacas, Angrish breeds of artiodactyls. The classification of wool fabrics is divided into poor quality wool – "Wolle", better mix with wool have designation "Schurwolle", or – natural wool. This classification is awarded if the wool material has no more than 7% impurity in its composition. Finally, "Reine schurwolle" – the highest class of wool, in the composition of which there is no more than 0.3% of third-party fiber. This wool has a high heat capacity, practically does not get dirty and dries for a long time.
Properties: high-quality wool is resistant to strong odors, which immediately disappear from it. In addition, in the process of wearing such a material even more dumped, which only improves its insulating properties.
Handling: the material should be washed only by hand using detergent for woolen fabrics. Special recommendation – do not make in the process of washing a strong physical impact, do not rub, twist, pull or strongly squeeze the material. Do not be dried with drying devices or in a centrifuge. Ideal temperature conditions – no more than 30 degrees, mode – wool. For more gentle drying, wrap a woolen thing in a terry towel or let it “lie down”, but do not hang it in the sun. Exposure to ultraviolet radiation is better; the heat of the radiator or drying apparatus can negate the impact on the quality of clothing and cause an increase in its durability.
MOHAIR The famous “diamond fiber” – six Angora goat with a rare addition of other fibers. Differs in strength, elasticity, and the appearance of products made of mohair, often attracts the eyes of passers-by due to its pomp and brilliance. The fabric of this material is out of season and, thanks to its insulating properties, will perfectly fit at any time of the year, providing comfort to the owner. The wool content of the Angora goat can not be more than 85%, which is associated with the technological difficulties of production (with an increase in the percentage, the material breaks up). We recommend using this as a universal way to verify the authenticity of the product and the honesty of the sellers.
ANGORA Angora or Angora – rabbit down, the content of which in the yarn can not exceed 70%. Very sensitive to mechanical stress and very often dissolved. Thing can not be washed by hand or in a typewriter, and also undesirable to wet and expose to strong temperature effects. Angora is a soft and delicate fabric, which is suitable only for chemical washing. Along with such softness and exactingness, expensive types of yarn using angora can serve for years.
CASHMERE When buying cashmere fabric, you should immediately pay attention to a few details. First of all – the color of the fabric. Most often, the color is light gray, black or gray – it depends on the color of the goat’s hair. Wool for fiber is taken from the chest or neck, which also affects the value of the goods. Natural cashmere costs thousands of dollars, and the manufacturer always indicates the density of the fibers in the yarn. The more of them – the warmer the yarn, and the less – the more it is suitable for the summer season.
Handling: cashmere things should not be zanashivat, they should always be treated with care, ensuring careful care. When washing, use a delicate mode or hand wash, at a temperature not exceeding 30 degrees. We recommend washing the item after every fourth wash.
SILK Silk is a fiber obtained from the silkworm’s cocoons – its caterpillars are specially bred in production. Brilliance, versatile smoothness and quality are those distinguishing characteristics of silk that have been valued since ancient times. The process of silk production consists in artificial breeding of cocoons, their further killing and washing them in hot water. The resulting yarns are often intertwined with each other to obtain the required density of the material.
Properties: due to its physical and chemical characteristics, the material can rightly be considered universal – it can be used both in summer and in winter. The material absorbs no more than 45% of its own weight, and tactile moisture will not be felt. It is best to give things from silk to dry cleaning, but hand washing is also possible. According to the conditions – here, as always, no more than 30 degrees, delicate mode, the absence of a significant mechanical effect. Wet silk items do not need to be dried in a centrifuge or drying devices, but must be carefully wrapped in a terry cloth, slightly squeezed. When washing you can use a little vinegar – it refreshes and improves the color range of the product. The clothes are ironed on the “silk” mode, while it is not recommended to sprinkle it with water, as this can lead to the formation of marks and stains.
LINEN even under the conditions of the emergence of a large variety of synthetic fabrics, many of which, thanks to modern production methods, are significantly superior to natural materials in many respects, the production of flax and things from it have not decreased. This is primarily due to the unique properties of the material. Flax perfectly absorbs moisture, dries quickly and gives off moisture, which feels great in the warm season.
Flax fiber does not accumulate static electricity, and the chemical and physical composition of the fibers contributes to the manifestation of thermoregulatory properties. The production of flax material consists in obtaining the necessary fiber from the stalks of plants and their further yarn until the moment of obtaining flax linen.
Properties: Linen material has a smooth and even surface, a peculiar brilliance, resistant to various types of pollution. Experience shows that flax material helps the human body perfectly in the heat, lowering its temperature by 3-5 degrees. In addition, flax fiber has peculiar antibacterial properties, creating such a microclimate on the human body, which prevents the formation of pathogenic bacterial environment there (for example, a fungus on the legs).
Handling: flax tolerates temperature during boiling, but the temperature should still not be exceeded by erasing colored things at 55 degrees, and finished at 40. Detergent is a universal powder, and the washing mode is delicate, with ironing it can be assumed to have a high iron temperature, but the material is still better to pre-moisten. Flax is very wrinkled, therefore, it is best to dry linen from this fiber outside, however, we recommend removing it quickly after folding and folding it – this will make the laundry look less, retaining its natural texture.
COTTON Cotton is the cheapest, most massive and widespread natural fiber obtained from cotton bolls.
Properties: the material is hygroscopic. Moreover, when absorbing moisture, the material can significantly increase in size, and its strength will also rapidly drop (unlike alternative materials, whose strength is more likely to increase). not very durable, but comfortable material, sensitive to ultraviolet, which can also have a negative impact on its durability. High temperatures also reduce strength by 2 times. Of the other deficiencies in tissue, it is particularly sensitive to the effects and reproduction of microorganisms, which causes the material to rot and fall apart. Some technological improvements — mercerization (simultaneous treatment with alkaline solution under tension) and refinement (reduction of indicators such as ductility and crushing) —can lead to improved consumer properties.
BAMBOO Bamboo fiber – an environmentally friendly and natural fiber, which is considered one of the most modern natural products, obtained by regenerating cellulose of a bamboo stem. Cultivation of industrial raw materials, innate antibacterial properties, environmental friendliness of use – all this attracts the attention of global clothing manufacturers to this material.
Properties: lack of the effect of static electricity accumulation, as well as the ability to freely wash the material in the washing machine, a tendency to dropping. Does not cause allergy attacks.
HEMP Hemp fiber has enhanced tactile properties that are clearly felt when worn. Like many natural materials, hemp fiber has enhanced thermoregulatory properties, maintaining the necessary temperature balance, depending on the season. The harmful effects of the sun’s rays are almost completely extinguished, while the carrying capacity (and therefore the harmful effects) of other materials is at a much lower level. Hemp fiber materials are distinguished by their natural practicality, wear resistance and increased service life. Also it should be noted the environmental friendliness of the production of this fiber, which has a positive impact on the environment.