With withdrawal syndrome, those people whose alcohol dependence has reached the second or third stage are faced. There are many negative manifestations of the syndrome: tremor, increased sweating, tachycardia, impaired coordination, mood swings and sleep disorders.
There is a chance that the pathology goes into delirium tremens, which doctors call delirium tremens. When treatment is used infusion therapy.
What is abstinence
Alcohol withdrawal is otherwise called withdrawal syndrome. How does this pathology develop? First, a person refuses to take alcoholic beverages, then a whole complex of psychological and somatic disorders, vegetative and neurological disorders arises.
Only those who are addicted (starting from the second stage) are faced with abstinence which is kind of like a hangover. However, there are important differences.
From the moment when a person begins to abuse alcohol, until the moment when alcohol withdrawal syndrome appears, a certain time should pass. This is a period from 2 to 15 years.
Gender and age of patients affect the time of onset of pathology. Teenagers and young men who regularly drink alcohol, face signs of withdrawal after 1-3 years. 2-5 years – and the disease can be called pronounced and long. As for women, their pathology appears after about 3 years of systematically taking alcohol.
Abstinence syndrome code ICD-10
On the pathogenesis of withdrawal syndrome in alcoholism
There are several options for the breakdown of ethyl alcohol, which enters the body.
First way: ethanol is processed with the help of alcohol dehydrogenase (this enzyme mainly “works” in the liver cells).
The second option: catalase is involved in the metabolism (an enzyme present in all cells). Also, ethanol is cleaved with the participation of the microsomal ethanol-oxidizing system (again in the liver cells). In all three cases, the decay of ethanol leads to the formation of acetaldehyde. The high toxicity of this organic compound causes a hangover, causing discord in the work of the whole organism.
If a person is healthy, then ethanol in his body is metabolized mainly with the participation of alcohol dehydrogenase. The abuse of alcoholic beverages triggers the process of alternative processing of ethanol, in which catalase and the microsomal ethanol-oxidizing system are involved.
Because of this, the amount of acetaldehyde in the blood increases. It accumulates in tissues and organs and affects the synthesis and breakdown of dopamine, a special substance that affects neurons.
Prolonged consumption of strong drinks leads to dopamine imbalance. The deficiency of the “hormone of happiness” is replenished as follows: ethanol combines with receptors of neurons. If a person does not take alcohol, then an insufficient amount of dopamine leads to the fact that the receptors are not stimulated properly. In sober condition, the patient experiences discomfort. So happens in the first stage of dependence, the lack of the “hormone of happiness” becomes a cause of mental attachment to alcohol.
The second stage of alcoholism – fracture time: if the patient does not take alcohol, the compensation is disrupted, aggravated by active synthesis and dopamine decay. High levels of dopamine provoke negative vegetative reactions characteristic of alcohol withdrawal.
Imbalance of dopamine causes significant harm to the body: blood pressure rises, anxiety and irritability appear, sleep is disturbed. The level of the “hormone of happiness” affects the severity of abstinence. Excess rates by three times leads to delirium tremens.
Acetaldehyde, which was mentioned above, not only affects the number of neurotransmitters, but also disrupts red blood cells. Red blood cells do not cope with providing the tissues with the necessary amount of oxygen, therefore metabolic disorders and oxygen starvation occur. Tissue hypoxia leads to somatic symptoms (another sign of alcohol withdrawal).
How long does abstinence last? The more affected the patient’s body, the longer the manifestations of the syndrome persist. Familiar to many hangover annoys a person just a few hours abstinence syndrome lasts 2-5 days. On the third day, the failure of compensation reaches the limit, the symptoms become as pronounced as possible. In severe cases, the patient suffers from pathology for 2-3 weeks.
The classification of alcohol withdrawal is associated with the severity of symptoms, the severity and time of appearance of certain signs.
Talk about the classification should start with second stage dependence. At this stage stands out three degrees of severity:
- 1 degree. This degree can be called intermediate. The patient is between the first and second stages of alcoholism, goes to short (2-3 days) binges. Symptoms are predominantly asthenic, marked autonomic disorders. A person feels dry mouth, accompanied by rapid heartbeat and increased sweating.
- 2 degree. Characteristic for the peak of the second stage of dependence, there is after long (from a week to 10 days) heavy drinking. Vegetative disorders are complicated by neurological disorders and malfunctions of the internal organs. Blood pressure “jumps”, heartbeat quickens, redness of the whites of the eyes and skin appears, the hands, tongue and eyelids tremble in a person. In addition, the head feels heavy, and the gait becomes uneven.
- 3 degree. It is characteristic for transition from the second stage to the third, when Binges last longer than 7-10 days. Vegetative and somatic manifestations persist, and mental disorders come to the fore. The patient suffers from sleep disorders, he is visited by nightmares, does not leave a feeling of anxiety and guilt. Depressed mood is replaced by flashes of aggression and irritation.
Concerning third stage alcoholism, then in this case abstinence becomes pronounced, combining all the above manifestations. Symptoms of alcohol withdrawal may vary. The stage of dependence, the general condition of the body, the length of the bout affect the “behavior” of the symptoms.
Symptoms of abstinence syndrome are divided into two groups. Early symptoms appear in for 6-48 hours after the patient stops taking alcohol. When a person starts drinking alcohol again, these signs either weaken considerably or disappear altogether.
When refusal from intoxicating drinks, the patient becomes irritable and restless, his hands are shaking, his heartbeat quickens, and the pressure increases. There is increased sweating, upset digestive tract, aversion to food, reduced muscle tone. Memory and attention deteriorate, clarity of judgment is lost.
Within 2-4 days after giving up alcohol appear late symptoms, which are mainly related to the patient’s mental state. Early symptoms (tremor, hyperhidrosis, tachycardia and
Usually the early symptoms are the precursors of late manifestations. In some cases, this pattern is broken. In mild cases, late symptoms are not observed.
Sometimes late symptoms occur suddenly with a generally satisfactory condition and absent / less pronounced early symptoms. One or another late symptom is able to subside, not bringing the patient to delirium tremens, which occurs with the combination of all the symptoms.
There are cases when epileptic seizure became the first manifestation of pathology, and the rest of the symptoms appeared later.
Exist four variants of abstinence. In each case, symptoms prevail with a particular system. This separation is of great importance for specialists, because it allows us to understand which organs were most affected, and select the appropriate treatment.
Classification of alcohol withdrawal syndrome
- Neurovegetative option. It occurs most often. This is a kind of “foundation” on which other manifestations are based. It is characterized by irregular blood pressure, tremor, hyperhidrosis, swelling, tachycardia, dry mouth, weakness, loss of appetite and sleep disorders.
- Cerebral variant. Vegetative disturbances are aggravated by dizziness and fainting, severe headache and intolerance to loud sounds. Occasional seizures occur.
- Somatic option, also called visceral. Identified violations in the work of internal organs. The whites of the eyes turn slightly yellow. There is arrhythmia, shortness of breath and pain in the heart. The patient is tormented by vomiting, nausea and diarrhea, painful sensations in the epigastric region.
- Psychopathological option. The patient is confronted with sleep disorders, illusions turning into visual and auditory hallucinations, anxiety, mood swings and unreasonable fear. The person loses the space-time orientation. Suicidal thoughts can turn into attempts to commit suicide.
Whatever the course of the pathology, the patient always suffers from mental disorders. This period demonstrates how degraded the personality of the alcoholic and how it is noticeable to others.
Outsiders see that the patient’s ability to think is significantly lost, that a person hardly understands the instructions and explanations, often behaves inappropriate. The patient is either unable to perceive irony and humor, or understands them in a very simplified way.
As a rule, young people suffer from anxiety, and the elderly – from depressed mood. In chronic alcoholism and concomitant abstinence syndrome a person is tormented by a feeling of hopelessness.
The patient can not refrain from the use of strong drinks, makes unsightly mindless actions, which leads to a sense of guilt. Sometimes panic attacks happen to the patient.
Depression gives way to purposefulness, which is associated with the desire to drink. Such an unstable state destroys moral guidelines. An alcoholic does not stop at nothing! The patient is able to lie to close people, beg for money even from outsiders, commit thefts or escapes from the house, open locks and
Treatment of alcohol withdrawal
The treatment of this pathology involved narcologists, who know how to get rid of withdrawal symptoms and how to alleviate the patient’s condition. Patients faced with mild alcohol withdrawal syndrome may receive the necessary assistance at home or outpatient.
What is the treatment scheme? The doctor must detoxify the patient’s body with activated charcoal. The patient will also need an intravenous drip of saline and vitamin therapy. To restore the function of internal organs and the nervous system will help special means.
It is possible that the alcoholic will need hospitalization. Changes in consciousness, epileptic seizures, fever, tremor, trembling of the tongue and eyelids, visions, exhaustion and dehydration – indications for treatment in the hospital.
Therapy in a medical institution is needed for somatic pathology. Severe bronchitis and pneumonia, hepatic and respiratory failure, bleeding in the stomach and intestines – These are the reasons for immediate hospitalization.
Schizophrenia, alcoholic depression and alcoholic psychosis, manic-depressive psychosis – All this is also indications for treatment in the hospital. Therapy in the hospital is a special program. The patient will have to undergo medication.
Outpatient therapy is complemented by the use of many drugs: nootropic drugs, neuroleptics, sedatives, hypnotics, means to eliminate somatic and mental disorders.
There are many positive reviews about non-drug treatment methods – a specially designed diet, plasmapheresis and
How to remove withdrawal symptoms at home
How to remove alcohol withdrawal at home? To do this, you must comply with a number of conditions. First, the hard drinking should not exceed a week period, and the previous one should have ended more than 3 months ago. Also, the patient should be less than 60 years old, and his dependencies should be less than 5 years. Under these conditions, you can engage in independent relief of withdrawal syndrome.
For home treatment you will need the following:
- Adsorbing agents. Such drugs will help excrete the decay products of ethanol. For the “cleaning” will need activated carbon, Polysorb and Enterosgel.
- Vitamin C. Vitamin C has an antioxidant, refreshing and tonic effect, removes toxins from the body. This is helped by antioxidant properties.
- Diuretics. Diuretics contribute to the speedy disposal of toxic substances.
- Sedatives. Soothing relieves stress and anxiety, struggling with fear and anxiety.
- Heart medication. Hot drinks cause a strong blow to the cardiovascular system, so it is necessary to support its activities during a difficult period.
- Hypnotics. If the patient is treated at home, then he needs proper rest, which will allow him to restore the nervous system. Often after a binge, patients suffer from insomnia, and this further destroys the already injured body.
- Vasodilator drugs. These medications are used for cramps and increased pressure to prevent stroke.
- Means that stimulates the blood supply to the brain and the restoration of normal mental activity, – Glycine and Piracetam.
For questions “How to survive the withdrawal syndrome” and “How to get out of withdrawal” There are many answers. There is one useful secret: in the fight against alcohol withdrawal syndrome, it is necessary to use a lot of fluids. After a binge the body suffers from dehydration, so you need to drink water (drinking and mineral), juices, green tea, etc.
Prognosis for withdrawal symptoms
Removing abstinence in a natural way, that is, without treatment, takes about 10 days, with home treatment or on an outpatient basis – about 5. If the alcohol withdrawal syndrome has taken a severe form, then the prognosis depends on the severity of symptoms and disorders, on the degree of pathology.
Psychopathological symptoms with a tendency to delirium tremens are more difficult to treat. Neurovegetative and visceral variant is easier to treat, and the pathology proceeds in a shorter period.
It is important not to forget that the already established dependence on alcohol leads to alcohol withdrawal. If a person suffering from alcoholism continues to drink strong drinks, then his wrong choice entails aggravation of the condition and progression of dependence.
The emergence of alcohol withdrawal syndrome – the reason for prompt treatment to a narcologist. The specialist will select an effective treatment regimen. The patient can be treated with medication, apply coding according to Dovzhenko, use the hypnotic method, install a coding implant.