Ekaterina Ruchkina September 3, 2015
Since childhood, they are trying to teach us to provide first aid for injuries. Such lessons are held in schools, in enterprises, in training drivers and so on. But still, most people are not ready to act correctly in a difficult situation. So, once again, how to help the victim – never superfluous.
General rules for first aid for any injuries:
- Soothe the victim and, if possible, relieve the pain. For this fit various anesthetics. You can only give alcohol as a last resort, with the development of shock, and only for adults. Cold applied to the injury site will help reduce pain, prevent swelling.
- Stop the blood if there are open wounds. To do this, apply pressure bandages and harnesses.
- Immobilize the damaged area of the body.
- Call the ambulance.
The first thing that baffles many: the impossibility to understand, there was a fracture or just a very painful injury, dislocation. In fact, do not waste time on such issues. It is always better to be safe and proceed from the fact that the bone is broken.
The second, which is not always told in the classroom on life cycle – traumatic shock. This is a dangerous condition that can develop in victims with severe injuries, fractures. And if you are faced with this problem – you must first try to prevent the aggravation of shock, and then proceed to the dressings and the imposition of tires.
With a strong and, most importantly, rapid blood loss, a reflex spasm of peripheral vessels occurs. After some time, the vessels expand again, the blood drains from the heart and brain – the pressure is rapidly falling. Further, the functions of the kidneys, liver, other organs and systems are disturbed, which leads to the accumulation of toxins in the blood, a dangerous change in the acid-base balance.
How to recognize shock?
At the first moment, after the injury, the victim may be hyperactive, excited. This condition, as a rule, does not last long. At the next stage, there is lethargy, up to loss of consciousness. Outwardly, you may notice:
- Severe pallor;
- Weak, almost absent pulse;
- Frequent, shallow breathing;
- Stalled look;
- If the abdominal cavity is not injured – give the patient pain medication (Analgin, Ketones and
It is better when several people are assisted at the same time: one can call doctors, another seeks and gives painkillers, a third stops blood and so on. In no case do not leave the victim in a state of shock. Be prepared to give him artificial respiration. Remember, the sooner a person gets help – first and specialized, the more likely they are to survive and regain health.
So, after anti-shock measures, if they are required, it is necessary to deal directly with a fracture.
The main thing is immobilization of the damaged area of the body. This is done using tires or fixing bandages.
For the manufacture of tires fit any dense, solid material:
- Bundles of twigs;
- Thick, folded cardboard;
- And so on;
The length of the splint should be sufficient to fix the two joints – above and below the fracture. For example, if a leg is broken below the knee, then both the knee and the ankle are fixed. Tires impose over clothes or put a cloth under it (gauze, cotton).
To relieve swelling and reduce pain, you can apply cold periodically. If you don’t have an ice pack, then any food from the freezer that you need to wrap in a clean bag will do.
If the victim is transported lying down, you can tie a broken leg to a healthy one. When the femur fractures, the tire must reach the waist and fasten there to fix the hip joint.
Fractures of the pelvis
These are extremely difficult and dangerous fractures. It is better not to move the victim. To make it easier, if possible, place a large cushion of blanket or clothing under slightly bent legs.
Put a splint on the arm, fixing the joints above and below the fracture, and then fix the limb. If the elbow is not touched, then you can hang a bent arm on a bandage attached to the neck. If bending is not possible – tie the arm to the body. In case of a shoulder fracture, a soft cushion is put under the armpit (from gauze, folded tissue), the arm is bent and fixed in this position, tied to the torso. In this case, it is better to transport the victim while sitting.
The main task – to squeeze the chest, so that a person breathes more stomach. You should carefully bandage the torso of the victim on the exhale. If the bandage is not enough – use a towel, a wide cloth, clothes, with knitted bands of bandage or other cloth to fix the chest. Transportation – sitting.
Fractures of the fingers
Put a soft pad between the sick and the neighboring, healthy finger (folded piece of cloth, gauze) and pin your fingers together.
What not to do with fractures
It is not necessary to move the patient without urgent need. Never try to adjust the bones, feel the fracture site. The main task is to remove or reduce pain and, as soon as possible, to transfer the victim to the hands of specialists.
Another common and dangerous injury is dislocation of the joint. It may be complicated by compression or rupture of soft tissues, ligaments, articular bags. It is usually difficult for a non-specialist to distinguish a dislocation from a fracture – and this is not required. Here you need to give a similar first aid – give anesthetic (apply cold) and fix the joint.
At the same time, it is impossible to change the position that the limb adopted after the dislocation. That is, in no case should not try to set the joint.
The main task: completely restrict the movement of the injured limb. Use the same methods as for fractures.
When bruising does not damage the bones and ligaments, skin, but soft tissues suffer, vessels burst. However, such an injury can be extremely dangerous if internal organs have suffered, for example, the lung or the brain (even if a possible concussion is suspected – you should consult a doctor!).
If the victim feels increasing pain, swelling increases, hematoma appears – be sure to ask for help in the trauma center. To place the injury should be applied cold.
Sprains of muscles and ligaments
Stretching is a type of trauma in which overloading damages muscle fibers or ligaments. At the same time, they may partially break and stretch. The first thing to do is immobilize and apply cold. If the pain does not recede, severe swelling appears, hematoma – need to visit the emergency room.