Today, the simplest and most reliable method of diagnosis is a blood test.
This is a laboratory study that allows you to find out the important indicators of blood that characterize the condition of the body. A blood test evaluates the color marker, red blood cell count, white blood cell count, platelet count and hemoglobin level.
Decoding the blood test reveals the presence of pathologies in the body. Abnormal deviations from the norm signal the occurrence of a lesion, anemia or blood diseases. The doctor always evaluates health according to blood counts, while taking into account age, gender and condition of the body.
The most significant indicator of the normal functioning of any organism is the volume of leukocytes. What are the components of the blood called leukocytes? White bodies, moving freely throughout the body and performing a protective and cleansing role. They seek to rid our body of antibodies, antigens, viruses, and microbes, thereby performing a protective function.
Leukocytes kill harmful microorganisms and decomposition products, absorb them, break down, bind, thereby preventing intoxication. Colorless cells have an irregular rounded shape with a size of 6-20 microns.
The benefits of leukocytes in the body
Blood white corpuscles – the main factor in protecting the body from the introduction of other cells. If the body is attacked by viruses, germs, bacteria, then white blood cells create a barrier against diseases and pests. Leukocytes produce enzymes and antibodies, break down and bind them, excrete waste products.
- protection from harmful microorganisms and foreign bodies;
- removal of antibodies and dead cells from the body;
- cleaning up decay products.
The number of leukocytes varies, depending on many factors, and deviation from the norm indicates violations in the body. If the number of leukocytes is increased, then the doctor prescribes additional studies to determine the pathology in the body.
More often leukocyte elevation is associated with an inflammatory process or a particular condition. For example, during pregnancy there is a slight increase in the level of leukocytes, as well as during menstruation in women (see the causes and treatment of elevated leukocytes in the blood).
Leukocyte count decrease indicates a decrease in immunity or other diseases. Since leukocytes are involved in the process of destroying microbes and cleansing the body, they themselves die, thereby reducing the leukocyte count in the blood (see the causes and treatment of low leukocytes in the blood).
The rate of leukocytes in the blood in children, men, women
There are many varieties of leukocytes. For example, granular granulocytes, segmented neutrophils, band neutrophils, basophils and eosinophils. There are also monocytes and lymphocytes.
All of them serve different purposes, performing certain functions. Each type of white blood cells responds in its own way to the pathological state of the body, changing the number. An increase in the level of leukocytes is called leukocytosis, and a decrease in leukopenia (see symptoms of leukopenia).
Leukocyte Norm in the body of an adult man and a woman is the same and is approximately 4-9 × 109 liter. The number of erythrocytes in the blood exceeds the number of leukocytes in 1000 times.
In children, the indicators are different and depend on age. Up to three years the level of leukocytes is 6-17 units. From three to six years, the rate is normal 5-12 units. At the age of 6-10 years, the level of leukocytes in the blood is 6-11 units. At the age of 12-15 years, the leukocyte count is normally close to the value of adults — 4.2–9.5 units.
If the number of leukocytes slightly exceeds the norm, then this indicates a course of the disease of mild or moderate severity. With colds and SARS, the level of leukocytes is about 8-9 units.
With prolonged infections, leukocytes penetrate through the walls of blood vessels, absorb foreign particles, digest them, but their number is significantly reduced. Cleansing the body from infection, the cells themselves and die. Therefore, leukopenia is associated with diseases of the body or weakening it.
Factors affecting the blood leukocyte count
A blood test is recommended to take on an empty stomach. After a meal, blood counts may vary. Also affects the number of leukocytes time of day, the state of the body – fatigue, stress, overload, both mental and physical.
It is not advisable to swim in a cold pond or take a hot bath, exercise, overeat, or consume a lot of spicy food before donating blood. In addition, the use of certain medications, for example, immunomodulators may affect this analysis. Therefore, preparation for blood donation is necessary.
The rate of leukocytes in the blood of women
The norm of the level of leukocytes in women is 3.2-10.2 × 109 / liter, and depends on such factors as the menstrual cycle and hormones. In this regard, in pregnant women, during labor and menstruation, the level of leukocytes is elevated.
There are two types of changes in leukocyte numbers: primary and secondary.
Primary diseases are associated with blood diseases, and secondary changes indicate damage to other organs and the presence of pathologies. An increase in leukocyte levels indicates inflammation, viral infection, and a decrease suggests the possibility of purulent diseases, diseases of the bone marrow, cirrhosis of the liver, tuberculosis, viral hepatitis, decreased immunity.
After receiving the analysis, you do not need to make a diagnosis yourself. The doctor, taking into account the clinical manifestations of symptoms, will advise further examination and possible treatment tactics.
Which doctor to contact for treatment?
If, after reading the article, you assume that you have symptoms characteristic of this disease, then you should consult a general practitioner.