To diagnose the pathology of the gastrointestinal tract, doctors prescribe many studies and one of them is a biochemical blood test. In this case, experts are guided by the amylase index. In the absence of deviations, its value does not exceed the norm.
An increase or decrease in alpha amylase indicates various problems in the activity of the digestive system.
What is amylase in a biochemical blood test?
Amylase is an enzyme of the glycosyl-hydrolase group that is synthesized by the body. The main part produces pancreas. A small amount of the enzyme is synthesized by other internal organs, as well as the salivary glands.
Amylase is actively involved in carbohydrate metabolism. The main function of the enzyme is the regulation of the activity of the digestive system, the splitting of starch and its modification into digestible substance.
The enzyme is divided into two types:
- Alpha amylase. Another name is salivary amylase. It is an enzyme that is synthesized in the salivary glands and pancreas. The digestion process depends on its concentration.
- Pancreatic amylase. This is part of alpha amylase. This enzyme is synthesized only in the pancreas. It has a direct effect on the digestive process that occurs in the duodenum.
Amylase is not only synthesized by the pancreas, but also forms part of the pancreatic juice. Here she takes an active part in the splitting of complex substances.
If we say that the enzyme shows in the blood analysis, then its deviations from the norm indicate various pathologies of the gastrointestinal tract.
Causes of increased alpha amylase in the blood
If the concentration of alpha amylase in the blood is elevated, this may indicate the development of pancreatitis. Enzyme levels are well above normal.
It happens that alpha amylase does not increase or increase in pancreatitis, but only slightly. This is because the severity of the pathology does not affect the concentration of the enzyme.
If extensive destruction of the soft tissues of the pancreas occurs, the main part of the cells of the alpha amylase is broken. For this reason, with pancreatitis, the level of the enzyme may not exceed its normal value.
If pancreatitis is diagnosed in a chronic form, then the concentration of amylase initially increases, but due to the destruction of soft tissues, the level of the substance is normalized.
Important! If during exacerbation of pancreatitis with pronounced symptomatology of pathology, it turns out that the level of the enzyme is not elevated, the prognosis for the patient will be disappointing. This condition indicates a significant destruction of the soft tissue of the pancreas.
There are other reasons for increasing alpha amylase in the blood:
- Cancer pathology of the pancreas of a malignant nature. Cancer of the head of this organ is usually diagnosed. If this particular disease has caused an increase in the concentration of the enzyme, then the rate will be exceeded four times.
- Diabetes mellitus of any type. This pathology is characterized by metabolic disorders. Incorrect enzyme consumption occurs. As a result, the pancreas begins to synthesize more alpha amylase and its concentration increases.
- Renal failure. Here there is a violation of the activity of this internal organ and because of this, there is a delay of the enzyme in the blood, which provokes a large deviation from the norm.
- Peritonitis. With such an illness, the patient’s well-being deteriorates dramatically. Suffering and pancreas, which begins to synthesize an increased amount of alpha amylase.
- Mumps This pathology, which proceeds in an acute form. Most often, children suffer from it. There is inflammation in the salivary glands, which provokes an increase in the concentration of the enzyme in the blood.
- Stones, present in the gallbladder and ducts.
Other reasons for increasing the deviation of the enzyme from the norm in a big way:
- trauma to the abdomen due to mechanical impact – a blow, a fall, and more;
- pathologies in which microamylase appears in the blood;
- ectopic pregnancy;
- the fourth type of herpes virus;
- intestinal obstruction;
- complications after operations on the abdominal organs;
- unhealthy diet;
- unstable emotional background;
- alcohol abuse;
- taking some medication.
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How to lower amylase in the blood?
To reduce amylase in the blood, it is necessary to identify the cause of the increase in concentration. This can only be done by a doctor after carrying out relevant research. Based on them, he diagnoses and prescribes therapy. After the course of treatment, amylase is reduced to a permissible value.
To speed up the decrease in the concentration of the enzyme will help adherence to a special diet:
- exclusion from the diet of fatty, fried, spicy and smoked food;
- refusal to drink alcoholic beverages, use of flour and black coffee;
- preferred cooking methods are steaming or baking;
- restriction of the use of protein foods and foods with fiber content;
- you can not starve or pass;
- It is recommended to eat food in small portions 5-6 times a day.
The following measures will also help speed up the normalization of blood amylase:
- observance of bed rest;
- avoid excessive physical exertion;
- full night rest, the duration of which should be at least 8 hours;
- rejection of addictions.
These are secondary measures to stabilize the level of amylase. the main thing – eliminate the cause of increasing its concentration. To this end, it is recommended to adhere to a course of therapy, which is prescribed by a doctor.
Usually, treatment is based on taking medication. The dosage and duration of therapy is determined by the doctor. Any self-treatment and course change may have undesirable consequences for the patient.
Alpha amylase is low in blood: causes
If the biochemical analysis showed low amylase in the blood, the reasons may be as follows:
- the period after surgery to remove the pancreas;
- increased cholesterol concentration in the blood;
- toxemia in the period of carrying a baby;
- acute or chronic hepatitis;
- liver disease;
- cystic fibrosis;
- failure of the pancreas;
- pancreatic necrosis;
- heart attack
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Norm amylase in the blood in adults
Since there are two types of amylase, the rate for each type of enzyme will be different. Laboratories conducting research establish their indicators. They may differ from generally accepted values, but to a small extent.
It all depends on the reagents used in the analysis. For this reason, along with the results of the study indicate the norms established in the laboratory.
Norm amylase in the blood of women
The normal level of alpha amylase in the blood of women ranges from 24 to 125 u / l.
- Such indicators are typical for ages from 2 to 70 years. The rate of alpha amylase in the blood of women older than 70 years is in the range of 30 to 16 units / l.
- The normal rate of pancreatic amylase is 50 U / L. The value is relevant for all children after 12 months and persists until the end of life.
Norm amylase in men
The rate of amylase in the blood of men is no different from the normal value of the enzyme in the blood of women,
Why can the amylase in the child’s blood be increased?
The reasons for the increase in amylase in the blood of a child:
- diseases of the internal organs;
- increased sugar concentration;
- pancreatic pathology;
- use of drugs based on hormones.
If the blood test revealed that the child has an increased amylase concentration, you should consult a doctor. Only a specialist can determine the cause., which affected the change in enzyme level. The specialist will also prescribe the appropriate treatment.
An amylase level test is recommended once a year. This will help in a timely manner to identify pathologies of the gastrointestinal tract and get rid of them at the initial stage of development.