One of the most important components of the full performance of the body of its functions – blood pressure.
Thanks to him, the blood flow to human organs
In the case when the blood pressure indicators exceed the physiological norm or do not reach it, there is a danger to health, and sometimes a threat to life.
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What is blood pressure
Blood pressure is an indicator that reflects the force of blood pressure on the walls of the arteries. The established unit of measurement of blood pressure – mm Hg. Art.
- arterial (its parameters and demonstrates the screen of the tonometer);
There is also a central blood pressure. It occurs in the aorta (the largest arterial vessel of the body). Its numbers are below the arterial level, and this is more pronounced in young people. When growing up, the specified parameters are aligned.
Blood pressure is one of the indicators of how viable the body is. It shows the state of human health, the presence of chronic pathologies.
The level of blood pressure depends on these indicators:
- the strength and frequency of contractions of the heart muscle;
- the values of the tone of the walls of arterioles, capillaries;
- volume of blood flow.
A normal indicator of blood pressure in a person is set individually. This necessarily takes into account age, gender.
The level of blood pressure is determined by such factors:
- the force with which the heart muscle contracts;
- elasticity of artery walls.
The indicator is affected by the volume of cardiac output, blood flow to the artery system, its viscosity, and other factors.
There are 2 types of blood pressure:
- systolic – its maximum numbers that appear at the time of cardiac muscle contraction;
- diastolic – the lower limit of blood pressure in the arteries (occurs when the heart is relaxed).
Normal values of upper arterial blood pressure in the brachial artery in adults are 110-139 mm Hg. Art., and the bottom ranges from 60 to 89 mm Hg. Art.
Now hypertension can be cured by restoring blood vessels.
The optimal parameter of blood pressure is the tonometer value 120/80 mm Hg. Art.
The difference in systolic and diastolic pressure indicates the pulse pressure. The average dynamic value of blood pressure is also determined, when the same result is observed without fluctuations in the pulse as with blood pressure, which varies naturally. In ventricular diastole, the pressure figures in the vessels do not get off to a minimum. Within the limits of the norm, it is retained by the elasticity of the artery walls, they stretch during systole.
How to accurately determine the pressure in humans
To get an accurate indicator of blood pressure, most often used a blood pressure monitor. If monitoring with it occurs at home, it is better to use an automatic or semi-automatic device, because the manual version can be applied with certain skills.
In order for the readings obtained during the measurement to be accurate, some recommendations should be followed:
- before the study does not smoke, eliminate high physical exertion;
- do not eat immediately prior to monitoring;
- sit comfortably, lean on the back of a chair;
- put your hand at chest level, better on a flat surface;
- do not move while measuring blood pressure values, do not talk;
- readings taken from both hands, maintaining an interval of 10 minutes.
If the value obtained strongly deviates from the age norm, you should contact a specialist for consultation, examination, if necessary, to undergo a course of therapy.
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What should be the pressure with age
Over the years, especially after 50 years, the indicators on the tonometer most often begin to grow. If the upper limit exceeds 140 mmHg. Art., and the bottom becomes more than 90 mm Hg. Art., should take measures to stabilize the parameters.
Table: The dependence of blood pressure on age
When blood pressure rises above 140/90 mm Hg. This condition is called hypertension, and its decline is below 110/60 mm Hg. Art. – hypotension. Most often, these conditions in everyday life is called hypertension, hypotension.
There are cases when only the upper limit increases separately, which means isolated systolic hypertension is detected.
High blood pressure
A high prevalence of blood pressure is quite common, especially for women over 40 years of age. Such a pathology does not appear immediately, the first signs often resemble fatigue, and few people pay attention to them.
- headache, dizziness;
- pain in the chest;
- heart failure
- darkness in the eyes;
- redness of the face;
- fever, excessive sweating, but hands remain cold;
If you do not take action immediately, then later more dangerous conditions develop, for example, kidney, heart failure, and the blood flow to the brain may be disrupted. In the absence of adequate therapy at this stage, even death is possible.
Hypertension is a rather dangerous condition and should not be taken lightly. On its background, myocardial infarction and stroke can develop.
In addition, patients often have such pathologies:
- the consciousness worsens;
- retinal changes;
- damaged artery walls;
- decreased visual acuity;
- blindness develops.
Why are blood pressure indicators rising? There are many reasons for this, one of which is agitation, anxiety, stressful situations. People with a genetic predisposition are suffering from hypertension. If a hereditary aggravating factor is found, health should be treated more carefully.
A big role is played by lifestyle, the ecological situation, food, addiction to bad habits, inactivity. All this in aggregate are factors against which the pressure indicator may increase every year, if not to take measures in time, to ignore the instructions and prescriptions of the doctor.
If timely seek help at the first manifestations of the pathology, complications can be avoided.
Medications are commonly used for treatment. Lifestyle is also being adjusted, and dietary habits are changing. It is recommended to play sports, walk more, eliminate excitement, stress.
All this in a complex allows to stabilize the state of the body, maintain blood pressure within the normal range.
Low blood pressure
Reduced pressure numbers are at least as high as hypertension. In such a situation, the values on the tonometer decrease below the blood pressure indicators that are observed in a person with good health.
There is such a classification of pathology:
- Physiological hypotension. When people prone to lower blood pressure, do not complain about their condition, although the pressure figures are at 90/60 mm Hg. Art. and below. When these values change in the direction of increase, the general state of health begins to deteriorate.
- Pathological form of the disease or true hypotension. In this situation, the parameters of blood pressure go down below those that are normal for a person. With this form of pathology, there are complaints of a headache in the back of the head, lethargy and fatigue, excessive fatigue, dizziness may occur, nausea may occur, and there is a desire to vomit.
The factors that lead to the development of hypotension, include the psycho-emotional state of a person. Her appearance contributes to prolonged mental activity, immobility, lack of physical activity.
When the volume of muscle mass decreases, the function of the heart muscle is performed poorly, the protein, mineral metabolism is lost, the problems in the work of the respiratory organs begin.
There is a decrease in blood pressure and activity in hazardous conditions, especially influenced by high temperature, excessive humidity, being underground. The pathology of the cardiovascular as well as the central nervous system can provoke the development of hypotension. Disruptions in the endocrine system, the activity of the adrenal glands and the respiratory system lead to pressure surges.
Is hypotension dangerous? Its physiological form of danger does not represent, at the same time, the body is trying with all its might to raise blood pressure to standard numbers. Sometimes this leads to hypertension, and in young people.
The most informative symptom that this condition manifests is low blood pressure numbers. If vegetative reactions occur, it can also be observed:
- problems with memory, performance of the brain;
- lack of coordination of movements;
- decreased visual acuity;
- impaired cardiac muscle function.
If the decrease in pressure figures is a frequent phenomenon, and it appears against the background of another disease, you should pay attention to this point. You should consult with your doctor, be examined, conduct therapy.
How to treat hypertension
Various methods can be used to treat hypertension.
- adequate physical activity;
- minimal use of alcohol;
- weight loss;
- to give up smoking;
- exclusion of salt from the diet;
- increase the amount of food of plant origin in the menu, the exclusion of animal fats from the menu.
Medicines begin to use when other methods have failed, or blood pressure indicators are too high. In addition, it is required in the presence of serious pathologies.
- development of hypertensive crisis;
- malfunction of target organs;
- kidney disease;
- atherosclerosis of the coronary arteries;
- hypertrophy of the left ventricle muscle of the heart.
In case of a mild disease, tablets are prescribed; this is aimed at reducing the level of blood pressure to normal values relative to the patient’s age.
Perhaps the use of several drugs, the dosage of which is determined based on the indicators on the tonometer, as well as the presence of aggravating factors.
Prevention and recommendations
In order to prevent health problems, jumps in numbers on the tonometer, the appearance of complications, it is best to engage in the prevention of these situations.
- Compliance with the regime of the day. It is desirable to ensure sleep in a comfortable environment for at least 7-8 hours, go to bed and rise at the same time. For hypertensive it is important to engage in work without tedious trips or night duty.
- Properly composed diet. The menu should include lean fish, fruits and vegetables, eat more cereals, lean meat. It should be the maximum to reduce salt intake.
- Active lifestyle. It is advisable to regularly perform gymnastics, walk in the evening before going to bed for half an hour, go swimming.
- Elimination of stress, feelings, emotional overstrain. It is recommended to engage in psychological relief through autotraining, self-hypnosis, meditation.
It is very important for each person to monitor their health, in time to pay attention even to minor signs of diseases, including non-standard blood pressure figures. Responsible attitude to your body will preserve the quality of life and extend it.
Hypertension, unfortunately, always leads to heart attack or stroke and death. For many years, we only stopped the symptoms of the disease, namely high blood pressure.
Only the constant use of antihypertensive drugs could allow a person to live.
Now, hypertension can be precisely cured, it is available to every resident of the Russian Federation.