Cyst of the maxillary sinus – the problem is quite common. Such a pathology can occur without any symptoms, but in certain conditions it becomes the cause of discomfort. Moreover, sometimes a cyst is really dangerous. And today, many are interested in more information about this ailment. Why does a cyst arise? What treatments does medicine offer? How dangerous can surgery be? Answers to these questions will be useful to many.
What is a cyst?
Of course, first of all, it’s worth finding out what this education is. It is not a secret to anyone that there are special air cavities in the human skull, which are called the paranasal sinuses. And the maxillary sinuses (or maxillary) are the largest of them.
Cyst of the maxillary sinus is benign. It is a small bag with a two-layer wall and liquid internal contents. The inner layer of the cystic wall contains special cells that produce mucous secretion. In fact, the cyst is formed in connection with the blockage of the mucus producing gland.
According to statistics, every tenth person on the planet has a similar tumor. But in most cases, the cyst does not give the patient any concern. Moreover, it is most often detected by chance, at a time when the doctor examines the nasal cavity and sinuses for the presence of any other diseases.
The main causes of the appearance of tumors
It is extremely important to learn about why a cyst of the maxillary sinus was formed. Treatment in most cases depends on this. As already mentioned, the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses are lined with mucous membrane, the special cells of which produce mucous secretion. Under the influence of various reasons, the excretory ducts of the mucous gland can become blocked, as a result of which the secret begins to accumulate in its cavity – that is how a cyst occurs most often. But the causes of blockage can be very different:
- The most common causes are frequent inflammatory diseases of the nasal passages and paranasal sinuses – these can be rhinitis, sinusitis, as well as antritis and other diseases.
- Some people have some anatomical features (for example, facial asymmetry) that make them more prone to this type of disease.
- In addition, the reasons can be attributed, and increased allergic background of the body.
- There is also a hypothesis that the cause of the formation of cysts may be some changes or features of the immune processes in the body, although this view has not yet been confirmed during the research.
- We should also mention the odontogenic cyst, the formation of which is associated with the disease of the maxillary teeth.
Classification: main types of cysts
Today, people want to know what constitutes a maxillary sinus cyst. Symptoms, treatment of the disease – all this also interests many. In addition, it is worth considering that such structures may be different. To date, there are several classification systems for such tumors.
For example, depending on the causes of occurrence and some features of the structure, it is customary to distinguish the following types of cysts:
- A true (retention) cyst is formed as a result of blockage of the excretory ducts of the mucous membrane of the gland. At the same time, inside the tumor is lined with typical mucous membrane cells that continue to produce the secret.
- False, or pseudocyst, as a rule, is formed by prolonged exposure to the allergen. The causes of its formation can be attributed, and inflammatory processes in the roots of the maxillary teeth. Such a formation does not have mucous cells.
In addition, a cyst may have a different filling – for example, a neoplasm may contain purulent masses, mucous secretions or serous fluid inside. The cyst can be formed both on the left and on the right side, which also needs to be taken into account in the diagnostic process.
What are the symptoms of the disease?
It should be noted that in most cases, this disease proceeds without any symptoms. The cyst does not interfere with breathing, does not cause pain and does not affect the quality of life of a sick person – quite often the otolaryngologist discovers it completely by chance during the diagnosis of sinusitis or some other diseases.
On the other hand, inflammation or rapid growth of a neoplasm can lead to the appearance of characteristic signs. So what are the symptoms of sinus cyst? Often, one of the first signs of pathology is pain, which appears above the site of localization of the cyst, but can also be given to the eye socket or temples.
In addition, many patients complain of constant nasal congestion and breathing difficulties. If the patient has a cyst of the left maxillary sinus, then, accordingly, the congestion will be felt more precisely from the left side. In some cases, you can observe scanty purulent discharge.
Symptoms of a cyst include severe headaches. Soreness, as a rule, is characterized by clear frontal localization.
Why is this pathology dangerous?
Immediately, it is worth noting that when therapy is started on time, the likelihood of complications is minimized. Nevertheless, a cyst of the maxillary sinus can lead to extremely unpleasant consequences. In particular, one of the most common complications is inflammation and suppuration of it, which is accompanied by pain, fever, the appearance of purulent discharge, etc.
There are also cases when a long-term growth of such a neoplasm led to an increased pressure on the bones and certain organs of the head. Bone under constant influence can be deformed. Moreover, in some cases, the cyst squeezes those other parts of the visual analyzer, which leads to diploidia and some other disorders. In an extremely neglected state, such a disease can lead to rejection or necrosis of bone tissue. That is why in no case should not leave this pathology without attention.
Modern diagnostic methods
To date, there are several fairly important methods of diagnosis of this disease. Only a doctor can diagnose a cyst of the maxillary sinus, so if you have any troubling symptoms, you should immediately contact a specialist.
First of all, the patient will be referred for X-ray, as this is the fastest and most accessible diagnostic method. Images in two projections help determine the presence of tumors, to establish their exact location, as well as size.
More accurate results can be obtained using magnetic resonance and computed tomography. In addition, the doctor can conduct an endoscopic examination of the maxillary sinuses, during which the cavity can be carefully examined from the inside using special equipment equipped with optical fiber. This is how a maxillary sinus cyst is defined. Endoscopic surgery, by the way, includes a biopsy – remote structures are sent to the laboratory, where they are used for cytological, biochemical and microbiological studies.
Maxillary cyst cyst: conservative treatment
Immediately it is worth noting that the choice of therapy is the task of the attending physician. Only a specialist can decide what to do next after examining the maxillary sinuses. Treatment with medication is not carried out. Tablets, nasal drops, solutions for washing – most often, all drugs are simply useless.
If the presence of a cyst does not affect the patient’s condition, and during the examination no inflammatory processes were identified, then specific treatment may not be required at all – patients are only recommended dynamic follow-up, which will give the doctor the opportunity to see the pathological changes in the given tumors in time.
Often therapy depends on the cause. For example, to eliminate the inflammatory process and pain that arose against the background of an odontogenic cyst, it is enough to carry out the correct treatment of the affected tooth – the symptoms will then disappear on their own. In some cases, the doctor performs a puncture of the sinuses or neoplasms, which can also have an effect, since the tissues can be released from the pus. Nevertheless, the shell of the cyst remains, and therefore there is a high probability of recurrence in the future.
In some cases, the removal of a sinus cyst is the only effective method of therapy. The decision on the operation is taken by the attending physician.
Removal of maxillary sinus cyst: when is it necessary?
To date, there are several basic techniques of surgical procedures. Only the doctor decides how exactly the cyst will be removed in the maxillary sinus. The operation, or rather, the method of its implementation, depends on both the individual characteristics of the patient and the type of cyst, and the availability of the necessary equipment in the clinic.
Quite often, the so-called Caldwell-Luc operation is performed. Such a procedure is most often performed under general anesthesia, although local anesthesia is also possible. First, the doctor makes an incision under the upper lip, then reveals the front wall of the sinus. With the help of special surgical instruments, a specialist removes a cyst through the hole made.
Unfortunately, this technique has several disadvantages. The fact is that the opening after the operation overgrows not bone, but scar tissue, which leads to some consequences. In particular, patients after such a procedure often suffer from permanent rhinitis and sinusitis.
Endoscopic removal of a sinus cyst is considered more effective and less dangerous. With this procedure, no cuts are required – the doctor enters all the instruments directly through the nasal passages. In addition, the endoscope is equipped with optical fiber, which allows the doctor to closely monitor the process and perform the necessary actions.
Endoscopic removal has several important advantages. For a start it is worth noting that after surgery there are no cuts or scars. The procedure does not require prolonged hospitalization – the patient, as a rule, is discharged after 1-2 days. The risk of developing complications is minimized. In addition, this method has virtually no contraindications.
Another treatment requires odontogenic cyst. In such cases, cyst removal is performed through an incision under the upper lip. The procedure is performed under local anesthesia.
If the inflammation is caused by the activity of bacterial microorganisms, before and after the operation the patient is undergoing antibiotic treatment (the choice of the drug depends on the nature and characteristics of the pathogen). Antibiotic therapy in any case is necessary after surgery to eliminate the risk of complications.
Is treatment possible with the help of traditional medicine?
Of course, traditional medicine offers a lot of non-traditional methods of treatment of this disease. But it is immediately worth noting that in no case should such self-treatment be started without prior consultation with the doctor, as this can only aggravate the situation. So which means are considered the most effective?
For example, drops that can be prepared at home are considered quite effective. You need to mix a tablespoon of water, a teaspoon of glycerin and two grams of mummy. It is necessary to bury three drops in each nasal passage. The procedure is repeated twice a day.
Gold mustache juice is also considered to be another effective medicine, which also needs to be instilled twice a day with three drops. You can taste the juice obtained from a forest cyclamen tuber (it must first be diluted with water in the ratio of 1 to 4). Instill nose preferably in the morning (no more than two drops). The course of treatment lasts about a week.
Such home remedies help relieve inflammation, and are also considered an excellent prevention of sinusitis. But you need to understand that the drops will not help get rid of the cyst – surgical intervention is necessary here.
It is worth remembering one more important points. Inhalation with essential oils, washing the nose, heating the sinuses can only exacerbate the situation. And the use of plant extracts in the presence of hypersensitivity can trigger an intense allergic reaction. Therefore, do not self-medicate without the permission of a doctor.
Are there effective prevention methods?
Unfortunately, today there are no tools that can permanently protect a person from the occurrence of this disease. Therefore, doctors recommend, if possible, to avoid exposure to the most common risk factors. In particular, all sinusitis, rhinitis, sinusitis and other diseases of the nose should be amenable to complete therapy in time. Some experts associate the formation of cysts with allergic reactions, so their occurrence should also be avoided (take antihistamine medicines in time, do not contact with the allergen).
In any case, such a disease with timely detection and treatment does not constitute a particular threat – you only need to seek help and carefully follow the instructions of the doctor.