Quite often, when a patient is consulted by a doctor, hemoglobin is tested for blood. What is it and what the body needs, not everyone imagines. In fact, many diseases, even elementary fatigue and bad mood can be associated with a lack of hemoglobin in the blood. When doing analyzes, many people do not understand how its level is important for health. It is necessary to notice its deficiency in time and take measures to adjust its content in the blood. This is especially necessary for children and pregnant women.
What is hemoglobin
This is a complex blood protein. It is contained in red blood cells – erythrocytes. Hemoglobin contains an iron ion surrounded by globin protein.
– binds oxygen and transports it from the lungs to all tissues and organs;
– transports carbon dioxide to the lungs;
– normalizes blood acid-base balance.
Oxygen is an essential element that is necessary for the existence of each cell. And without the help of hemoglobin, he can not get to them from the lungs. Even the slightest decrease in its level affects the vital functions of the organism. Therefore, it is so important to know what hemoglobin is, what is needed for its formation and how to maintain its sufficient level in the blood.
Deviations from the norm
– If a person has hemoglobin below normal, anemia develops. This disease affects the state of the whole body and in severe cases is very dangerous, especially for children and pregnant women.
– The hemoglobin level above the norm can be both in healthy people and in certain diseases.
During the life of a person, this protein undergoes some changes. And even if you know what hemoglobin is, it is difficult for an ordinary person to understand in its various forms. However, such deviations from the norm occur infrequently. In addition to the usual molecule, which is associated with red blood cells, primary hemoglobin may be present in the blood of an adult, which is formed in newborns and disappears by the year. This may be evidence of the presence of various diseases. There is also glycated hemoglobin. What is it is known to patients with diabetes, because such a form is formed during this disease. This combination of hemoglobin molecule with glucose indicates a violation of carbohydrate metabolism and shows whether the treatment of diabetes is effective. Therefore, all diabetics should regularly donate blood for glycated hemoglobin. What it is and why it is needed, the doctor explains. Sometimes hemoglobin is not in the erythrocytes, but in the blood plasma. This disease is called hemoglobinemia and is caused by a serious impairment of health. It is quite dangerous, since hemoglobin in a free state becomes toxic to humans. This can occur when hemolytic anemia, poisoning or transfusion of incompatible blood.
This condition is not considered a separate disease and is quite rare.
– chronic obstructive pulmonary disease;
In severe cases, this condition leads to impaired blood circulation and blood clotting, varicose veins and bleeding. A person may have increased blood pressure and reddening. But artificially lower hemoglobin is not worth it: when you get rid of the diseases leading to this, he himself returns to normal. The only thing you need to follow the diet, eliminating from the diet all fatty foods and limiting animal proteins.
What threatens anemia
This is a disease in which hemoglobin is below normal in human blood. Anemia can be caused by large blood losses, malnutrition, cancers, intestinal dysbiosis or worm infestations. In all these conditions, there is either a violation of the absorption of iron, or a low level of red blood cells, and accordingly, hemoglobin. If this happens, not all cells of the body begin to receive oxygen. They experience oxygen starvation and gradually die. First of all, the brain suffers from this and immunity goes down. Therefore, anemia is very dangerous for children, as their development slows down and they become susceptible to various infections.
Symptoms of low hemoglobin
– drowsiness and other sleep disorders;
– lowering blood pressure;
– heart palpitations or heart failure;
– appetite disturbances, up to the appearance of anorexia;
– fragility and change in the structure of nails;
– dry and pale skin and various skin diseases;
– hair loss, their fragility and dandruff;
– disease of the mucous membranes, the appearance of ulcers;
– reproductive impairment.
What boosts hemoglobin
Many people think that patients with anemia need more iron-rich foods. But the main thing is not the amount of this substance, but the quality of its assimilation. For example, there are foods rich in iron, but completely useless for raising hemoglobin levels, because it is absorbed only under certain conditions. These are sea kale, buckwheat, blueberries, apples, spinach and others. Iron is best absorbed from animal products: red meat, liver, egg yolks and fatty fish.
Why do you need a hemoglobin test
Doctors recommend even healthy people to donate blood annually. Thus, it is possible to recognize the onset of the disease in time.